2021年12月9日 星期四
荷花不同品种花瓣中挥发性成分的研究
Study on volatile components in petals of different cultivars of Nelumbo nucifera
2019年 第28卷 第1期 页码[52-61]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

利用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)技术对荷花(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)20个品种(包括5种花色和4种瓣型)花瓣中挥发性成分及其相对含量进行了检测,并基于释香成分对荷花20个品种进行了聚类分析。结果显示:荷花20个品种花瓣中共检测出69个挥发性成分,包括烷烃类化合物18个,烯烃类化合物24个,醇类化合物8个,酯类化合物6个,酮类、醛类、胺类和酸类化合物各2个,其他化合物5个,其中,释香成分42个。荷花20个品种花瓣中烷烃类、烯烃类和醇类化合物的相对含量较高,且在20个品种中均有检出;而酯类、酮类和醛类化合物的相对含量较低,且仅在个别品种中检出。荷花不同品种间花瓣中挥发性成分的数量和相对含量存在差异。‘大洒锦’(‘Dasajin’)、‘16-A10-1’和‘16-A10-27’花瓣中挥发性成分数量较多,分别为27、21和20种。‘大洒锦’、‘伯里夫人’(‘Bolifuren’)和‘子夜’(‘Ziye’)花瓣中挥发性成分的相对含量较高,分别为93.58%、91.92%和91.79%。‘稼先莲’(‘Jiaxianlian’)、‘子夜’、‘中国红·井冈山’(‘Zhongguohong Jinggangshan’)、‘27-1’、‘16-A9-55’、‘16-A9-49’、‘珠峰翠影’(‘Zhufengcuiying’)、‘金太阳’(‘Jintaiyang’)、‘秣陵秋色’(‘Molingqiuse’)和‘大洒锦’花瓣中的主要挥发性成分为正十六烷,‘中国红·北京’(‘Zhongguohong Beijing’)、‘16-A10-30’、‘16-A10-27’、‘39-1’、‘逸仙莲’(‘Yixianlian’)、‘伯里夫人’和‘16-A9-44’花瓣中的主要挥发性成分为正十五烷,‘16-A10-1’、‘红台莲’(‘Hongtailian’)和‘艾江南’(‘Aijiangnan’)花瓣中的主要挥发性成分分别为1-十六烯、α-石竹烯和1-石竹烯。聚类分析结果显示:‘子夜’、‘红台莲’、‘16-A10-27’、‘秣陵秋色’和‘艾江南’聚为A组,‘逸仙莲’单独聚为C组,其他14个品种聚为B组。1-石竹烯、α-石竹烯和α-松油醇对A组荷花品种的香气具有重要贡献,桧烯、反-7-十六烯和顺-5-十八烯对B组荷花品种的香气具有重要贡献,α-萜品烯对C组荷花品种的香气具有重要贡献。综合研究结果认为:荷花花瓣中的释香成分与花色和瓣型无明显关联,不同品种花瓣中特有的释香成分可能对其香气具有决定作用。

Abstract

The volatile components and their relative contents in petals of 20 cultivars (including five flower colors and four petal types) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. were detected by using headspace solidphase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) technology, and cluster analysis on 20 cultivars of N. nucifera was carried out based on aroma components. The results show that 69 volatile components in petals of 20 cultivars of N. nucifera are detected, including 18 alkanes, 24 alkenes, 8 alcohols, 6 esters, 2 ketones, 2 aldehydes, 2 amines, 2 acids, and 5 others, in which, there are 42 aroma components. Relative contents of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols in petals of 20 cultivars of N. nucifera are high, and all are detected in 20 cultivars; while those of esters, ketones, and aldehydes are low, and are detected only in several cultivars. There are differences in numbers and relative contents of volatile components in petals of different cultivars of N. nucifera. Numbers of volatile components in petals of ‘Dasajin’, ‘16-A10-1’, and ‘16-A10-27’ are large, with 27, 21, and 20, respectively. Relative contents of volatile components in petals of ‘Dasajin’, ‘Bolifuren’, and ‘Ziye’ are high, with 9358%, 91.92%, and 91.79%, respectively. Main volatile component in petals of ‘Jiaxianlian’, ‘Ziye’, ‘Zhongguohong Jinggangshan’, ‘27-1’, ‘16-A9-55’, ‘16-A9-49’, ‘Zhufengcuiying’, ‘Jintaiyang’, ‘Molingqiuse’, and ‘Dasajin’ is n-hexadecane, that in petals of ‘Zhongguohong Beijing’, ‘16-A10-30’, ‘16-A10-27’, ‘39-1’, ‘Yixianlian’, ‘Bolifuren’, and ‘16-A9-44’ is npentadecane, and those in petals of ‘16-A10-1’, ‘Hongtailian’, and ‘Aijiangnan’ are 1hexadecene, α-caryophyllene, and 1-caryophyllene, respectively. The result of cluster analysis shows that ‘Ziye’, ‘Hongtailian’, ‘16-A10-27’, ‘Molingqiuse’, and ‘Aijiangnan’ are clustered into Group A, ‘Yixianlian’ is clustered into Group C alone, other 14 cultivars are clustered into Group B. 1caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and α-terpineol have an important contribution on aroma of cultivars of N. nucifera in Group A, sabinene, 7-hexadecylene-(E), and 5-octadecylene-(Z) do in Group B, and α-terpinene does in Group C. The comprehensive research result shows that there is no obvious association of aroma components with flower color and petal type of N. nucifera, and specific aroma components in petals of different cultivars play a decisive role in their aroma.

关键词荷花; 顶空固相微萃取-气质联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)技术; 挥发性成分; 释香成分; 相对含量
Key wordsNelumbo nucifera Gaertn.; headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) technology; volatile component; aroma component; relative content
作者牛叶青, 张芳, 李柳燕, 金奇江, 王彦杰, 徐迎春
所在单位南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095
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基金项目江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(16)1024〕; 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(KJQN201659)