2021年12月9日 星期四
暴马丁香不同种源种子和幼苗的表型性状变异及其与地理-气候因子的相关性
Variation of phenotypic traits of seed and seedling of Syringa reticulata subsp. amurensis from different provenances and their correlations with geographic-climatic factors
2016年 第25卷 第3期 页码[80-89]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

为探究不同产地暴马丁香[Syringa reticulata subsp. amurensis (Rupr.) P. S. Green et M. C. Chang]种子和幼苗的表型性状变异规律及其与地理-气候因子的关系,以来源于黑龙江、河北、北京、内蒙古、青海和山西的 10 个种源(包括 6 个野生种源和 4 个栽培种源)的种子和幼苗为实验材料,对种子长和宽、种翅长和宽、百粒质量、发芽率、叶长和宽、叶长与叶宽的比值、叶柄长、株高和地径 12 个表型性状进行测量;在此基础上,进行了方差分析、变异系数分析、主成分分析、聚类分析及相关性分析。 结果显示:暴马丁香不同种源间种子和幼苗的表型性状均有极显著差异(P = 0. 01),差异较大的表型性状为发芽率、百粒质量、种翅长和种翅宽。 种源内和种源间各表型性状的变异系数(CV)均差异较大,种源内 CV 值为 1. 39% ~ 45. 56% ,种源间 CV 值为 6. 45% ~ 42. 76% ;其中,种源内种翅长和种翅宽的 CV 平均值较大,发芽率和百粒质量的 CV 平均值均较小,而种源间发芽率和百粒质量的 CV 值则较大。 主成分分析结果表明:暴马丁香表型性状间的差异主要体现在种子长、种子宽和叶长,其次为株高、发芽率、地径、叶宽和种翅宽。 根据聚类分析结果,供试的 10 个种源被划分为 4 类,其中,来源于北京和内蒙古及 3 个来源于河北的种源聚为玉类,来源于黑龙江哈尔滨的 2 个种源聚为域类,来源于山西的 2 个种源聚为芋类,来源于青海的1个种源单独聚为郁类,聚类结果与各种源的地理分布有关。 相关性分析结果表明:各表型性状间及表型性状与地理-气候因子间均存在不同的相关性,其中,种子发芽率与种子的其他 5 个表型性状均无显著相关性;经度和纬度与各表型性状均无显著相关性,而海拔、年均温和无霜期则是影响表型性状变异的主要因子。 综合分析结果显示:暴马丁香各种源间存在明显的地理遗传分化,地理隔离和生态因子的大幅变化导致其种子和幼苗的表型性状变异丰富。根据研究结果,对暴马丁香的保护和利用提出了一些建议。

Abstract

To reveal variation rule of phenotypic traits of seed and seedling of Syringa reticulata subsp. amurensis ( Rupr.) P. S. Green et M. C. Chang from different locations and their relation with geographic-climatic factors, taking seed and seedling from ten provenances of Heilongjiang, Hebei, Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Shanxi ( including six wild provenances and four cultivated provenances) as experimental materials, twelve phenotypic traits including length and width of seed, length and width of seed wing, 100-grain mass, germination rate, length and width of leaf, ratio of leaf length to leaf width, petiole length, height and ground diameter were measured. On this basis, variance analysis, coefficient of variation analysis, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were carried out. The results show that there are obviously significant differences (P = 0. 01) in phenotypic traits of seed and seedling of S. reticulata subsp. amurensis among different provenances, and phenotypic traits with great difference are germination rate, 100-grain mass, seed wing length and seed wing width. There are great differences in coefficient of variation ( CV) of phenotypic traits within and among provenances, CV value within provenances is 1.39% -45. 56% , and that among provenances is 6. 45% -42. 76% . In which, within provenances, average CV values of seed wing length and seed wing width are larger, and those of germination rate and 100-grain mass are smaller, while among provenances, those of germination rate and 100-grain mass are larger. The result of principal component analysis shows that differences in phenotypic traits of S. reticulata subsp. amurensis are mainly concentrated in seed length, seed width and leaf length, and differences in height, germination rate, ground diameter, leaf width and seed wing width are the second. According to result of cluster analysis, ten provenances tested can be divided into four categories, in which, provenances from Beijing and Inner Mongolia and three provenances from Hebei are clustered to categoryⅠ, two provenances from Harbin of Heilongjiang are clustered to category Ⅱ, two provenances from Shanxi are clustered to category Ⅲ, one provenance from Qinghai is clustered to category Ⅳ alone, and the cluster result is related to geographical distribution of all provenances. The result of correlation analysis shows that there are different correlations among phenotypic traits and phenotypic traits with geographic-climatic factors, in which, there is no significant correlation of seed germination rate with other five phenotypic traits of seed, and correlation of longitude and latitude with all phenotypic traits is not significant, while altitude, annual mean temperature and frostless period are the main factors affecting variation of phenotypic traits. The comprehensive analysis result shows that there is obvious geographic genetic differentiation among different provenances of S. reticulata subsp. amurensis, and geographic isolation and great change in ecological factor cause rich variation of phenotypic traits of its seed and seedling. Based on research result, some suggestions about protection and utilization of S. reticulata subsp. amurensis are put forward.

关键词暴马丁香; 表型性状; 地理-气候因子; 聚类分析; 相关性分析; 地理变异
Key wordsSyringa reticulata subsp. amurensis ( Rupr.) P. S. Green et M. C. Chang; phenotypic trait; geographic-climatic factor; cluster analysis; correlation analysis; geographic variation
作者杨晓霞, 冷平生, 郑 健, 胡增辉, 刘学娅, 杨晓红, 窦德泉
所在单位北京农学院园林学院 北京市乡村景观规划设计工程技术研究中心 城乡生态环境北京实验室, 北京 102206
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基金项目北京市科学技术委员会科技计划项目(Z121100007412003); 国家林木(含竹藤花卉)种质资源平台(2014 年度); 北京市属高等学校创新团队建设与教师职业发展计划项目(IDHT20150503); 北京市教育委员会科技提升计划(PM2014014207)