2018年9月23日 星期日
湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区台湾松+檫木群落特征
Characteristics of Pinus taiwanensis+Sassafras tzumu community in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve of Hu’nan Province
2017年 第26卷 第4期 页码[84-92]
摘要

为了探明湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区台湾松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)+檫木〔Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl.〕群落的特征和演替规律,在野外调查基础上,对该群落的种类组成、种子植物区系特征、生活型、外貌特征、垂直结构和物种多样性以及优势种的重要值和种群年龄结构进行了分析,并对该群落中台湾松和檫木与其他乔木层和灌木层优势种的种间联结进行了分析。结果表明:该群落共有维管植物45科73属126种,以蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、山茶科(Theaceae)、杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)和樟科(Lauraceae)为优势科;该群落种子植物的热带分布型属最多,温带分布型属也较多,分别占群落中种子植物总属数(世界分布型属除外)的5246%和4754%,并且,该群落包含丰富的孑遗植物属和种;该群落中高位芽植物占有绝对优势,所占比例达73.02%,地上芽、地面芽和隐芽植物所占比例分别为23.02%、1.59%和2.38%,但未发现一年生植物;该群落的常绿乔木和灌木种类较多,林冠颜色季节变化明显。该群落垂直结构明显,乔木层以台湾松、檫木、交让木(Daphniphyllum macropodum Miq.)和毛漆树〔Toxicodendron trichocarpum (Miq.) O. Kuntze〕为优势种,物种多样性指数居中;灌木层以鹿角杜鹃(Rhododendron latoucheae Franch.)、格药柃(Eurya muricata Dunn)和东方古柯(Erythroxylum sinensis C. Y. Wu)为优势种,物种多样性指数最低;草本层物种数最多,物种多样性指数最高。该群落的Simpson多样性指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数均较高,分别为0.95、3.68和0.76。年龄结构分析结果表明:该群落中台湾松和檫木种群处于衰退状态,而交让木、毛漆树和银木荷(Schima argentea Pritz. ex Diels)种群处于增长状态。种间联结分析结果表明:该群落中台湾松和檫木与其他乔木和灌木优势种的共同出现百分率均较高,并且,台湾松与檫木的种间联结呈极显著正相关。研究结果显示:湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区的台湾松+檫木群落为典型的亚热带中山针阔叶混交林,具有由亚热带向温带过度的性质,并且,该群落相对稳定、物种丰富且具有一定的古老性。

Abstract

In order to verify the characteristics and succession rule of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata+Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl. community in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve of Hu’nan Province, species composition, floristic characteristics of spermaphytes, life form, appearance feature, vertical structure, species diversity, and important value and population age structure of dominant species in this community were analyzed on the basis of field survey, and interspecific associations of P. taiwanensis and S. tzumu with other dominant species in arbor and shrub layers of this community were analyzed. The results show that there are 126 species of vascular plants in 73 genera belonging to 45 families in this community with dominant families of Rosaceae, Theaceae, Ericaceae, and Lauraceae. In this community, tropical distribution genera of spermaphytes are the most, and temperate distribution genera are also more, accounting for 52.46% and 47.54%, respectively of total genus number of spermaphytes in this community excluding Cosmopolitan genera; and this community contains abundant relic genera and species. In this community, phanerophytes have absolute advantage with percentage of 73.02%, percentages of chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, and cryptophytes are 23.02%, 1.59%, and 2.38%, respectively, but annual plant is not founded. There are more evergreen arbor and shrub species in this community, and the seasonal change of its canopy color is obvious. The vertical structure of this community is evident, the dominant species in arbor layer are P. taiwanensis, S. tzumu, Daphniphyllum macropodum Miq., and Toxicodendron trichocarpum (Miq.) O. Kuntze with medium species diversity index, those in shrub layer are Rhododendron latoucheae Franch., Eurya muricata Dunn, and Erythroxylum sinensis C. Y. Wu with the lowest species diversity index, and species number in herb layer is the largest with the highest species diversity index. Simpson diversity index, ShannonWiener diversity index, and Pielou evenness index of this community are high with values of 0.95, 3.68, and 0.76, respectively. The age structure analysis result shows that in this community, P. taiwanensis and S. tzumu populations are in declining status, while D. macropodum, T. trichocarpum, and Schima argentea Pritz. ex Diels populations are in increasing status. The interspecific association analysis result shows that percentages of co-occurrence of P. taiwanensis and S. tzumu with other dominant species of arbors and shrubs in this community are relatively high, in addition, interspecific association of P. taiwanensis with S. tzumu appears the extremely significantly positive correlation. It is suggested that P. taiwanensis+S. tzumu community in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve of Hu’nan Province is typical subtropical mid-mountain coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and possesses the character of transition from subtropical to temperate, besides, this community is relatively stable with abundant species and a certain ancient character.
 

关键词台湾松; 檫木; 群落特征; 种间联结; 群落演替
Key wordsPinus taiwanensis Hayata; Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl.; community characteristics; interspecific association; community succession
作者刘楠楠1, 刘佳2, 张明月1, 王蕾1, 杨书林3, 廖文波2
所在单位1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048; 2. 中山大学生命科学学院, 广东 广州 510275; 3. 湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区管理局, 湖南 炎陵 412500
点击量344
基金项目国家科技基础性工作专项(2013FY111500)