2019年8月22日 星期四
青海省甘蒙柽柳群落植被区系分析
Floristic analysis on vegetation of Tamarix austromongolica community in Qinghai Province
2017年 第26卷 第2期 页码[90-96]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

为了探明青海省甘蒙柽柳(Tamarix austromongolica Nakai)群落植被的区系特征,对同德县然果村甘蒙柽柳古树林群落的古树资源基本特征和结构特征进行了分析,并对该古树林群落及同德县班多村和贵德县曲卜藏村甘蒙柽柳幼树林群落的科属组成、生活型和区系特征进行了分析和比较;在此基础上,提出甘蒙柽柳古树林群落的保护策略。调查结果显示:在然果村古树林群落中,胸径大于1.40 m的甘蒙柽柳百年古树有203株,最高植株的株高、胸径和地径分别为22.85、1.78和3.39 m;群落中小叶杨(Populus simonii Carr.)百年古树有15株,最高植株的株高和胸径分别为25.00和4.18 m。在垂直结构上,然果村古树林群落分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层3个层次,其中,草本层包括多年生丛草层和一年生杂草层2个层次;在水平结构上,甘蒙柽柳均匀散布在群落内,小叶杨呈带状聚集分布,大部分灌木呈丛状分布,草本植物则呈小丛或单生态分布。然果村古树林群落有种子植物8科18属21种,班多村幼树林群落有种子植物10科18属20种,曲卜藏村幼树林群落有种子植物8科12属12种。区系分析结果表明:在科水平上,3个甘蒙柽柳群落均以世界分布型为主;在属水平上,然果村古树林群落和班多村幼树林群落均以北温带分布型为主,占总属数(不包括世界分布型)的37.50%和43.75%,而曲卜藏村幼树林群落则以世界分布型为主,中亚分布型次之。比较结果表明:3个群落的甘蒙柽柳植株大小差异明显,物种组成和区系成分也有一定差异。综合考虑认为,甘蒙柽柳古树林群落保护应采取就地保护和迁地保护相结合的方式。

 

Abstract

In order to clarify the floristic characteristics of vegetation of Tamarix austromongolica Nakai community in Qinghai Province, basic characteristics of ancient tree resources and structure characteristics of ancient forest community of T. austromongolica at Ranguo Village of Tongde County were analyzed, and family and genus composition, life form. and floristic characteristics of this ancient forest community and young forest communities of T. austromongolica at Banduo Village of Tongde County and Qubuzang Village of Guide County were analyzed and compared. On this basis, protection strategies for ancient forest community of T. austromongolica were proposed. The investigation results show that in ancient forest community at Ranguo Village, there are 203 century ancient trees of T. austromongolica with diameter at breast height greater than 1.40 m, and height, diameter at breast height and ground diameter of the highest tree are 22.85, 1.78 and 3.39 m, respectively; there are 15 century ancient trees of Populus simonii Carr. in the community, and height and diameter at breast height of the highest tree are 25.00 and 4.18 m, respectively. On the vertical structure, ancient forest community at Ranguo Village can be divided into three layers including arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer, in which, herb layer includes two layers of perennial clump grass layer and annual weed layer. On the horizontal structure, T. austromongolica disperses uniformly in the community, and P. simonii shows a zonal aggregation distribution, while most of shrubs show a clustered distribution, and herbs show a small clump or single ecological distribution. There are 21 species in 18 genera belonging to 8 families of seed plants in ancient forest community at Ranguo Village, 20 species in 18 genera belonging to 10 families of seed plants in young forest community at Banduo Village, and 12 species  in 12 genera belonging to 8 families of seed plants in young forest community at Qubuzang Village. The floristic analysis results show that at family level, three communities of T. austromongolica are dominated by Cosmopolitan type; at genus level, ancient forest community at Ranguo Village and young forest community at Banduo Village are dominated by North Temperate type, which account for 37.50% and 43.75% of total genus number excluding Cosmopolitan type, respectively, while young forest community at Qubuzang Village is dominated by Cosmopolitan type, and Central Asia type takes the second place. The comparative results show that there is an obvious difference in plant size of T. austromongolica among three communities, and also some differences in their species composition and floristic elements. Overall, the protection of ancient forest community of T. austromongolica is recommended by combination methods of in situ conservation and ex situ conservation.

关键词甘蒙柽柳; 古树林; 幼树林; 科属组成; 生活型; 区系成分
Key wordsTamarix austromongolica Nakai; ancient forest; young forest; family and genus composition; life form; floristic element
作者赵艳芬1,2, 孔凡逵1,2, 苏志豪1, 潘伯荣, 吴玉虎3
所在单位1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011; 2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 青海 西宁 810008
点击量392
基金项目中国科学院干旱区生物地理与生物资源重点实验室项目(LBB-2010-012)