2021年4月23日 星期五
不同光照度对金线莲生长、生理特性和药用成分的影响
Effects of different illuminances on growth, physiological characteristics, and medicinal components of Anoectochilus roxburghii
2020年 第29卷 第1期 页码[26-36]    下载全文[9.5MB]  
摘要

以金线莲品种‘泰宁一号’(Anoectochilus roxburghii ‘Taining No. 1’)组培苗为实验材料,在光照度500、1 500、3 000、4 500和6 000 lx条件下处理30、60、90、120、150和180 d时分别取样,分析不同光照度对其生长和生理指标以及药用成分含量的影响。结果显示:随处理时间的延长,金线莲的12项生长指标、8项生理指标和3类药用成分含量均呈波动的变化趋势。在生长指标中,根长、根直径、株高、茎直径、单株叶片数、叶长、叶宽、单株鲜质量、单株干质量和折干率总体增加,而单株根数和单株茎节数的变化幅度总体较小;在生理指标中,SOD活性、可溶性总糖含量、叶绿素a(Chla)含量、叶绿素b(Chlb)含量和总叶绿素(Chl)含量总体升高,POD活性总体降低,而CAT活性和可溶性蛋白质含量则总体呈“单峰型”变化趋势;在药用成分中,总黄酮和生物碱含量总体升高,且除了光照度500 lx处理组外,其他处理组的多糖含量也总体升高。在多数处理组间,根直径、茎直径、单株茎节数、单株叶片数、叶长、叶宽和SOD活性总体无显著差异,但POD活性和CAT活性总体差异显著。在光照度500 lx条件下,金线莲的株高、Chla含量、Chlb含量和Chl含量总体最高,但根长最小;在光照度6 000 lx条件下,金线莲的根长、单株鲜质量、单株干质量和折干率总体最高,但Chla含量、Chlb含量和Chl含量总体最低;在光照度3 500 和4 500 lx条件下,多糖、总黄酮和生物碱含量均维持在较高水平。处理结束时,各处理组金线莲的根直径、株高、叶长、叶宽、单株鲜质量、单株干质量和总黄酮含量分别增加100.0%~166.7%、21.6%~33.3%、27.3%~52.6%、12.5%~50.0%、68.5%~134.0%、163.2%~341.2%和19.7%~50.0%,表明较长时间的光照有利于金线莲这些指标的提升。综合分析结果表明:较低的光照(500 lx)可使金线莲叶片中叶绿素含量增加;较高的光照(6 000 lx)可促进金线莲根伸长和物质积累;而适度的光照(3 000和4 500 lx)则可使其药用成分含量增加。综合考虑产量和品质,建议在金线莲栽培过程中采用光照度3 000~4 500 lx较为适宜。

Abstract

 Taking tissue culture seedlings of Anoectochilus roxburghii ‘Taining No. 1’ as experimental materials, the seedlings treated for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 d under illuminances of 500, 1 500, 3 000, 4 500, and 6 000 lx were sampled, effects of different illuminances on its growth and physiological indexes and medicinal component contents were analyzed. The results show that with the extension of treatment time, 12 growth indexes, 8 physiological indexes, and contents of 3 kinds of medicinal components of A. roxburghii all show a fluctuation variation tendency. Among growth indexes, root length, root diameter, height, stem diameter, leaf number per plant, leaf length, leaf width, fresh mass per plant, dry mass per plant, and drying rate increase in general, while variation ranges of root number per plant and number of stem node per plant are relatively small in general; among physiological indexes, SOD activity, soluble total sugar content, chlorophyll a (Chla) content, chlorophyll b (Chlb) content, and total chlorophyll (Chl) content increase in general, POD activity decreases in general, while CAT activity and soluble protein content show a “unimodal” variation tendency in general; among medicinal components, contents of total flavonoid and alkaloid increase in general, and polysaccharide content in other treatment groups also increases in general except for illuminance of 500 lx treatment group. There is no significant difference in root diameter, stem diameter, number of stem node per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf length, leaf width, and SOD activity among most treatment groups in general, but POD activity and CAT activity are significantly different among them in general. Under illuminance of 500 lx, height, Chla content, Chlb content, and Chl content of A. roxburghii are the highest in general, but root length is the smallest; under illuminance of 6 000 lx, root length, fresh mass per plant, dry mass per plant, and drying rate of A. roxburghii are the highest in general, but Chla content, Chlb content,and Chl content are the lowest in general; under illuminances of 3 500 and 4 500 lx, contents of polysaccharide, total flavonoid, and alkaloid all keep relatively high levels. At the end of treatment, root diameter, height, leaf length, leaf width, fresh mass per plant, dry mass per plant, and total flavonoid content of A. roxburghii in each treatment group increase by 100.0%-166.7%, 21.6%-33.3%, 27.3%-52.6%, 12.5%-50.0%, 68.5%-134.0%, 163.2%-341.2%, and 19.7%-50.0%, respectively, indicating relatively long light treatment contributes to the increase of these indexes of A. roxburghii. The comprehensive analysis results show that relatively low illumination (500 lx) can increase chlorophyll content in leaf of A. roxburghii; relatively high illumination (6 000 lx) promotes the elongation of root and accumulation of substances in A. roxburghii; moderate illumination (3 000 and 4 500 lx) can increase its medicinal component contents. Considering yield and quality, it is suggested that illuminance of 3 000-4 500 lx is suitable during the cultivation process of A. roxburghii.

关键词金线莲; 光照度; 处理时间; 品质; 产量; 药用成分
Key wordsAnoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.; illuminance; treatment time; quality; yield; medicinal component
作者牛欢1a, 韦坤华2, 徐倩1a, 李明杰1a,1b, 古力1a, 王建明1a, 张重义1a,1b
所在单位1. 福建农林大学: a. 农学院, b. 作物遗传育种与综合利用省部共建教育部重点实验室, 福建 福州 350002;2. 广西壮族自治区药用植物园, 广西 南宁 530023
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基金项目国家中医药管理局2015年行业科研专项 (201507002); 国家中药材产业技术体系建设项目(CARS-21-09)