2021年10月17日 星期日
48个葡萄品种果实大小粒性状调查及差异分析
Investigation and difference analysis on characters of fruit size of 48 grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars
2020年 第29卷 第4期 页码[19-27]    下载全文[4MB]  
摘要

以中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所葡萄种质资源圃内果实大小粒现象明显的48个葡萄(Vitis spp.)品种为材料,对各品种的小果率进行了调查,并对各品种大果和小果的生长性状(包括果粒纵径、果粒横径、果形指数、单果粒质量和单果粒种子数)、果实品质(包括果实硬度、可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸含量和花色苷含量)和横切面解剖结构进行了比较。结果表明:供试所有葡萄品种的小果率为13.9%~87.9%,且在品种间差异较大。供试所有品种大果的果粒纵径、果粒横径和单果粒质量分别为15.35~30.29 mm、16.16~27.98 mm和2.82~14.32 g,显著(P<0.05)高于同一品种小果;47个有核品种的大果均有种子,单果粒种子数为1~6,但除‘高妻’(‘Takatsuma’)和‘熊岳白’(‘White Xiongyue’)外,其余有核品种的小果均未见种子。供试所有品种大果的果实硬度为0.52~1.66 kg·cm-2,显著高于同一品种小果;多数品种大果的可溶性固形物含量(13.34%~23.08%)、可滴定酸含量(0.32%~0.99%)和花色苷含量(0.22~3.46 mg·g-1)显著低于同一品种小果。果实横切面解剖结构观察结果表明:同一品种大果和小果间表皮细胞的长度、宽度和面积差异显著;在400倍视野内,同一品种大果和小果间的表皮细胞数也差异显著,且大果的表皮细胞数显著高于小果。总体来看,同一葡萄品种大果和小果间的生长性状、果实品质和解剖结构存在显著差异,推测其大小粒形成主要由果实发育前期的细胞数量决定。

Abstract

  Taking 48 grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars with evident fruit size phenomenon in Grape Germplasm Resources Garden of Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences as materials, small fruit rate of each cultivar was investigated, and growth characters (including fruit vertical diameter, fruit horizontal diameter, fruit shape index, single fruit mass, and seed number of single fruit), fruit quality (including fruit firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acid content, and anthocyanin content), and anatomical structure of transverse section of big and small fruits of each cultivar were compared. The results show that small fruit rate of all grape cultivars tested is 13.9%-87.9%, and the difference among cultivars is relatively big. Fruit vertical diameter, fruit horizontal diameter, and single fruit mass of big fruit of all cultivars tested are 15.35-30.29 mm, 16.16-27.98 mm, and 2.82-14.32 g, respectively, which are significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of small fruit of the same cultivar; big fruits of 47 seeded cultivars have seeds, their seed number of single fruit is 1-6, but except for ‘Takatsuma’ and ‘White Xiongyue’, no seed can be found in small fruits of other seeded cultivars. Fruit firmness of big fruit of all cultivars tested is 0.52-1.66 kg·cm-2, which is significantly higher than that of small fruit of the same cultivar; soluble solid content (13.34%-23.08%), titratable acid content (0.32%-0.99%), and anthocyanin content (0.22-3.46 mg·g-1) of big fruit of most cultivars are significantly lower than those of small fruit of the same cultivar. The observation result of anatomical structure of transverse section of fruits shows that differences in length, width, and area of epidermal cell between big and small fruits of the same cultivar are significant; in view with 400 times, the difference in number of epidermal cell between big and small fruits of the same cultivar is also significant, and number of epidermal cell of big fruit is significantly higher than that of small fruit. Overall, there are significant differences in growth characters, fruit quality, and anatomical structure between big and small fruits of the same grape cultivar, suggesting that the formation of fruit size is mainly determined by cell number at early stage of fruit development.

关键词葡萄; 果实大小粒; 生长性状; 果实品质; 解剖结构
Key wordsrape (Vitis spp.); fruit size; growth characters; fruit quality; anatomical structure
作者葛孟清1, 董天宇1, 郑婷1, 上官凌飞1, 房经贵1, 刘崇怀2
所在单位1. 南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095; 2. 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所, 河南 郑州 450009
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基金项目江苏现代农业(葡萄)产业技术体系建设项目(JATS[2018]279); 江苏省农业科技自主创新项目〔CX(18)2008〕