2019年8月22日 星期四
桂西壮族饮食文化中野生食用植物的民族植物学研究
Ethnobotanical study on wild edible plants in diet culture of Zhuang Nationality in Western Guangxi
2017年 第26卷 第2期 页码[97-106]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

运用民族植物学方法,以广西西部的1市1区10县为研究区域,对桂西壮族饮食文化中利用野生食用植物的传统知识进行了调查和研究。结果显示:桂西壮族饮食文化中常用的野生食用植物有46科102种,其中菊科(Asteraceae)种类最多(13种),其次为苋科(Amaranthaceae)、伞形科(Umbelliferae)、蔷薇科(Rosaceae)和豆科(Leguminosae)(各6种)。食用部位常为嫩枝叶、果实、全株、花、根和茎等,其中,食用部位为嫩枝叶的种类最多(48种),食用部位为根和茎的种类最少(8种),食用部位为果实、全株和花的种类分别有18、17和11种。食用方法有炒、煮汤、生食、凉拌、水煮、茶饮、上汤和配菜等,常见的食用方法为炒和煮汤。采摘时间主要为春季和夏季,部分种类可全年采食。不同区域的壮族民众对野生食用植物的选择具有随机性,主要依据方便、易得、适用、无污染等标准进行选择,且生活在不同区域、不同环境的壮族民众对野生食用植物的选择具有较明显差异。综合分析结果表明:桂西壮族民众拥有丰富的利用野生食用植物的传统知识,具有食用植物种类丰富、食用部位多样、食用方法多样等特点,形成了富有民族特色的饮食文化。此外,根据研究结果,对桂西壮族特色饮食文化的保护和传承进行了探讨,并对当地野生食用植物资源的可持续利用提出了一些建议。

 

Abstract

Traditional knowledge of utilizing wild edible plants in diet culture of Zhuang Nationality in Western Guangxi was investigated and researched by ethnobotanical methods in Western Guangxi including 1 city, 1 district and 10 counties. The results show that there are 102 species of common wild edible plants belonging to 46 families in diet culture of Zhuang Nationality in Western Guangxi. In which, species in Asteraceae are the most (13 species), followed by Amaranthaceae, Umbelliferae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae (each 6 species). Edible parts are often tender branch and leaf, fruit, whole plant, flower, root, stem, etc. In which, species taken tender branch and leaf as edible parts are the most (48 species), species taken root and stem as edible parts are the least (8 species), and species taken fruit, whole plant and flower as edible parts are 18, 17 and 11 species, respectively. Edible methods are frying, cooking soup, raw eating, cold dishes, water boiling, tea, broth, side dishes, etc., and common edible methods are frying and cooking soup. Harvesting time is mainly in spring and summer, and some species can be harvested and eaten throughout the whole year. Zhuang Nationality people in different regions make a random selection of wild edible plants, and mainly base on standards of convenience, easy to get, applicability, no pollution, etc. Meanwhile, the choice of Zhuang Nationality people in different regions and environments for selecting wild edible plants has an obvious difference. The results of comprehensive analysis show that Zhuang Nationality people in Western Guangxi possess rich traditional knowledge of utilizing wild edible plants with a variety of edible plants, edible parts, edible methds and other characteristics, and form. diet culture with ethical characteristics. Besides, according to research results, protection and inheritance of typical diet culture of Zhuang Nationality in Western Guangxi are discussed, and some suggestions are also put forward for sustainable utilization of local wild edible plant resource.

关键词桂西; 壮族; 野生食用植物; 饮食文化; 民族植物学
Key wordsWestern Guangxi; Zhuang Nationality; wild edible plant; diet culture; ethnobotany
作者黄珂, 苏仕林
所在单位百色学院民族植物学研究所, 广西 百色 533000
点击量418
基金项目广西壮族自治区教育厅科研项目(YB2014388; KY2015LX392); 2015年广西高等学校优势特色专业群建设项目(桂教高教〔2015〕41号-66); 2014年广西高等学校优势特色专业(桂教高教〔2014〕52号-130)