2021年10月27日 星期三
甘肃省张掖市野生沙枣的表型多样性及观赏性分析
Analysis on phenotypic diversity and ornamental of wild Elaeagnus angustifolia from Zhangye City of Gansu Province
2021年 第30卷 第4期 页码[12-21]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

在甘肃省张掖市选择野生沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn.)集中分布的4个样点,以果色、叶色和株形为标准初选出40株样株,比较了各样株15个表型性状的变异性和多样性,同时通过相关性分析、主成分分析和聚类分析探讨了沙枣表型性状的关联性和观赏特性。结果表明:沙枣的果实颜色、叶表颜色、叶背颜色和树冠圆整度4个质量性状,以及果实纵径、果实横径、果形指数、叶长、叶宽、叶形指数、株高、冠幅、枝下高、分枝角度和分枝数11个数量性状均有不同程度差异。从质量性状的分布频度看,果色以橙红色为主、叶色较浅且株形较为杂乱;11个数量性状的变异系数(CV)均值为27.03%,以果实横径的CV值最小(10.29%)、枝下高的CV值最大(104.77%),总体上与株形相关性状的CV值均较大。质量性状的Shannon-Weaver多样性指数(H′)均值为1.19,以叶表颜色的H′值最大(1.34)、树冠圆整度的H′值最小(1.00);数量性状的H′均值为2.76,以叶形指数的H′值最大(3.58)、分枝数的H′值最小(1.58);数量性状的H′值均高于质量性状。4个质量性状间,仅果实颜色与叶表颜色呈显著(P<0.05)负相关;11个数量性状间多数性状无显著相关性,但果实纵径和果实横径与果形指数、叶长和叶宽与叶形指数、冠幅和枝下高与分枝数均存在显著或极显著(P<0.01)相关性;质量性状与多数数量性状间无显著相关性,仅果实颜色与果实横径和果形指数分别呈极显著正相关和极显著负相关,树冠圆整度与冠幅呈显著正相关。主成分分析结果表明:前6个主成分的累计贡献率达76.98%,基本能反映沙枣表型性状特征,包括与果实、叶片和株形有关的大部分性状。聚类分析结果表明:在欧氏距离20处,40株样株分为3组,分别包含18、12和10株样株;在欧氏距离11处,组Ⅰ和组Ⅲ又各自分为2个亚组;总体上看,组Ⅰ样株的树冠较圆整,株高和枝下高均较高,果实颜色鲜艳;组Ⅱ样株的树冠圆整且树冠大,枝下高较低,多呈大灌木状,叶片圆而宽,叶背颜色更偏银白;组Ⅲ样株的树冠较为杂乱,果实和叶片狭长,叶色更偏银白。综合分析结果显示:沙枣的表型性状变异丰富,多样性较高。根据果实(颜色、大小和形状)、叶片(颜色、大小和形状)和株形(树冠圆整度、枝下高、分枝数和冠幅)相关性状可对沙枣的观赏性进行评估。

Abstract

 4 sampling plots in concentrated distribution of Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. were selected in Zhangye City of Gansu Province, and 40 sampling trees were preliminarily selected by using fruit color, leaf color and plant shape as criterions. Variability and diversity of 15 phenotypic traits of each sampling tree were compared, and the correlations of phenotypic traits and ornamental traits of E. angustifolia were investigated by using correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results show that there are different degrees of differences in 4 qualitative traits (namely fruit color, leaf surface color, leaf back color and crown roundness) and 11 quantitative traits (namely fruit vertical diameter, fruit horizontal diameter, fruit shape index, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, plant height, crown diameter, underbranch height, branching angle and branching number) of E. angustifolia. Concerning the distribution frequency of qualitative traits, the fruit color is mainly orange red, the leaf color is relatively light, and the plant shape is relatively in disorder; the average of coefficient of variation (CV) of 11 quantitative traits is 27.03%, the CV value of fruit horizontal diameter is the smallest (10.29%), and that of underbranch height is the largest (104.77%), and overall, the CV values of traits related to plant shape are relatively large. The average of ShannonWeaver diversity index (H′) of qualitative traits is 1.19, the H′ value of leaf surface color is the largest (1.34), and that of crown roundness is the smallest (1.00); the average of H′ value of quantitative traits is 2.76, the H′ value of leaf shape index is the largest (3.58), and that of branching number is the smallest (1.58); the H′ values of quantitative traits are higher than those of qualitative traits. Among 4 qualitative traits, only fruit color shows a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation with leaf surface color; there are no significant correlations among most traits of 11 quantitative traits, but there are significant or extremely significant (P<0.01) correlations of fruit vertical diameter and fruit horizontal diameter with fruit shape index, leaf length and leaf width with leaf shape index, and crown diameter and underbranch height with branching number; there are no significant correlations of qualitative traits with most quantitative traits, only fruit color shows extremely significant positive and extremely negative correlations with fruit horizontal diameter and fruit shape index, respectively, and crown roundness shows a significant positive correlation with crown diameter. The principal component analysis result shows that the cumulative contribution rate of the first 6 principal components reaches 76.98%, which can basically reflect the phenotypic traits of E. angustifolia, including most traits associated with fruit, leaf and plant shape. The cluster analysis result shows that 40 sampling trees can be divided into 3 groups at Euclidean distance of 20, which contain 18, 12 and 10 sampling trees, respectively; and group Ⅰ and group Ⅲ can be divided into 2 subgroups at Euclidean distance of 11, respectively; on the whole, the crown of sampling trees in group Ⅰ is relatively round, the plant height and under-branch height are relatively high, and the fruit color is bright; the crown of sampling trees in group Ⅱ is round and big, the under-branch height is relatively low, most of them show a large shrubby shape, the leaf is round and wide, and the leaf back color tends to be silver white; the crown of sampling trees in group Ⅲ is relatively in disorder, the fruit and leaf are long and narrow, and the leaf color tends to be silver white. The comprehensive analysis result shows that the variations of phenotypic traits of E. angustifolia are rich with a relatively high diversity. The ornamental of E. angustifolia can be evaluated according to related traits of fruit (color, size and shape), leaf (color, size and shape) and plant shape (crown roundness, under-branch height, branching number and crown diameter).

关键词沙枣; 表型性状; 多样性指数; 聚类分析; 主成分分析; 观赏价值
Key wordsElaeagnus angustifolia Linn.; phenotypic trait; diversity index; cluster analysis; principal component analysis; ornamental value
作者曾郅涵, 李庆卫, 遆羽静
所在单位北京林业大学园林学院, 北京 100081
点击量7022
下载次数171
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31560131)