2019年10月17日 星期四
中国特有种川榛的地理分布格局与气候环境因子的关系分析
Analysis on relationship between geographical distribution pattern of Chinese endemic species Corylus kweichowensis and climatic environmental factors
2017年 第26卷 第1期 页码[77-83]    下载全文[1.2MB]  
摘要

采用查询资料和实地调查相结合的方法,收集中国特有种川榛(Corylus kweichowensis Hu)的地理分布资料以及各分布区的气象数据;利用Kira温暖指数、Kira寒冷指数、徐文铎湿度指数、Holdrige生物温度、Holdrige可能蒸散率和Holdrige可能蒸散量对川榛地理分布格局与气候水热指标的关系进行研究;并采用主成分分析法对影响川榛分布的气候水热指标进行了分析。结果表明:川榛分布于中国的15个省(自治区、直辖市),水平分布范围为东经102°06′~121°59′、北纬25°11′~37°38′,分布的最北端和最东端均位于山东省牟平县,最南端和最西端分别位于贵州省安龙县和四川省泸定县;垂直分布海拔为300~2 500 m,集中分布海拔为500~1 000 m,主要分布于秦岭、伏牛山、大别山和大巴山等山系。川榛分布区的年均温、Kira温暖指数、年降水量和Holdrige生物温度的最适范围分别为11.24 ℃~17.72 ℃、91.53 ℃·月-1~149.24 ℃·月-1、596.38~1 601.75 mm和11.66 ℃~17.54 ℃,Kira寒冷指数、徐文铎湿度指数、年空气相对湿度、Holdrige可能蒸散量和Holdrige可能蒸散率的均值分别为-6.73 ℃·月-1、9.11、74.81%、860.25 mm和0.89,其分布南界和北界的Kira温暖指数、Kira寒冷指数和年降水量的范围分别为62.90 ℃·月-1~169.10 ℃·月-1、-39.90 ℃·月-1~-1.10 ℃·月-1和425.50~2 058.20 mm;按照Holdrige分类系统,川榛属于暖温带和亚热带湿润森林生命地带类型中的树种,生态适应性较广。主成分分析结果表明:限制川榛地理分布的气候水热条件由高到低依次为低温条件、高温条件、湿度条件,因此,园艺化栽培川榛时可首先考虑1月均温、Kira寒冷指数、极端低温、无霜期和年均温等因素。

 

Abstract

Geographical distribution data of Chinese endemic species Corylus kweichowensis Hu and meteorological data in its distribution area were collected by combined methods of literature investigation and filed survey; relationship between geographical distribution pattern of C. kweichowensis and climatic water-temperature indexes was studied by Kira’s warmth index, Kira’s coldness index, Xu’s humidity index, Holdrige’s biological temperature, Holdrige’s potential evapotranspiration rate and Holdrige’s potential evapotranspiration; climatic water-temperature indexes which influence distribution of C. kweichowensis were analyzed by principal component analysis. The results show that C. kweichowensis distributes in 15 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) of China, its horizontal distribution range is the area of east longitude 102°06′-121°59′ and north latitude 25°11′-37°38′. Its northernmost and easternmost distribution boundaries both locate in Muping County of Shandong Province, while its southernmost and westernmost boundaries locate in Anlong County of Guizhou Province and Luding County of Sichuan Province, respectively. Its vertical distribution elevation is 300-2 500 m with the concentrated distribution elevation 500-1 000 m, and C. kweichowensis is mainly distributed in Qinling Mountains, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountains and Daba Mountains, etc. The optimum ranges of annual mean temperature, Kira’s warmth index, annual precipitation and Holdrige’s biological temperature indistribution area of C. kweichowensis are 11.24 ℃-17.72 ℃, 91.53 ℃·month-1-149.24 ℃·month-1, 596.38-1 601.75 mm and 11.66 ℃-17.54 ℃, respectively; mean values of Kira’s coldness index, Xu’s humidity index, annual air relative humidity, Holdrige’s potential evapotranspiration and Holdrige’s potential evapotranspiration rate are -6.73 ℃·month-1, 9.11, 74.81%, 860.25 mm and 0.89, respectively; ranges of Kira’s warmth index, Kira’s coldness index and annual precipitation of its south and north distribution boundaries are 62.90 ℃·month-1 -169.10 ℃·month-1, -39.90 ℃·month-1 - -1.10 ℃·month-1 and 425.50-2 058.20 mm, respectively. According to Holdrige’s classification system, C. kweichowensis is a tree species of humid forest life zone type in warm temperate and subtropical zone, which has a wide ecological adaptability. The principal component analysis shows that climatic water-temperature conditions which constrain geographical distribution of C. kweichowensis are in the order of low temperature condition, high temperature condition, humidity condition from high to low. Therefore, factors such as mean temperature in January, Kira’s coldness index, extreme low temperature, frostless period and annual mean temperature should be primarily considered when horticulturally cultivating C. kweichowensis.

关键词中国特有种; 川榛; 地理分布; 气象因子; 水热指标
Key wordsChinese endemic species; Corylus kweichowensis Hu; geographical distribution; meteorological factor; water-temperature index
作者王陆军1, 2, 赵天田1, 马庆华1, 肖正东2, 王贵禧1
所在单位1. 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 国家林业局林木培育重点实验室 林木遗传育种国家重点实验室, 北京 100091; 2. 安徽省林业科学研究院, 安徽 合肥 230031
点击量400
基金项目中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2017ZA004-9); 国家自然科学基金资助项目(31500555); 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2016QB003)