2024年7月26日 星期五
世界黑莓产业发展和研究现状及前景
The status of industry development and scientific research of blackberry ( Rubus spp.) in the world, with a prospect in China
2012年 第21卷 第3期 页码[105-115]    下载全文[1.9MB]  
摘要

在查阅大量文献资料的基础上,结合作者的研究成果,对国内外黑莓(Rubus spp.)产业发展及研究现状进行了综述,并分析了存在的问题,阐述了中国黑莓产业的发展优势和产业化前景。目前黑莓在全世界的种植面积约为20 035 hm2,年产量1.5×105~2.0×105 t,栽培区域遍及各大洲,其中塞尔维亚的黑莓种植面积位居世界第一,美国的黑莓年产量居世界第一,亚洲仅中国种植黑莓;近几年来,罗马尼亚、波兰、墨西哥、智利、匈牙利、中国以及美国的黑莓种植面积增长较快;因黑莓极不易贮存,绝大多数鲜果用于加工。国外以常规育种技术为主、分子技术为辅培育出许多黑莓品种,栽培技术已经非常成熟,成功实现了机械化采收,并逐步推广黑莓的有机生产体系和大棚栽培技术。国外黑莓生产中面临的主要问题是经济、冻害和病虫害等。黑莓于1986年引入中国,从1994年开始推广,至2010年种植面积约4 500 hm2,主要集中在江苏省的溧水县、赣榆县和溧阳市,90%以上鲜果加工成速冻果出口。在国外引种和国内野生种质资源收集的基础上,中国的研究者开展了黑莓的选种和育种研究,并培育和筛选出适宜于本地种植的黑莓优良品种;黑莓的栽培、加工技术研究也取得了显著的成果,并研制出一些加工产品。当前中国黑莓产业主要面临主栽品种单一、农药残留量超标、栽培条件差等方面的问题,制约了黑莓产业的发展。由于黑莓适于低山丘陵栽培,具有结果早、见效快、营养价值高等优势,在中国具有广阔的发展前景。

 

Abstract

On the basis of consulting a lot of literatures and combining with the authors’research results,the status of industry development and scientific research of blackberry ( Rubus spp.) in the world was summarized, the problems were analyzed, and the advantage and developmental potential of blackberry in China were also mentioned. At present, blackberry is cultivated over every continent in the world with a area of 20 035 hm2 and an annual yield of 1. 5×105 -2. 0×105 t, in which, the most cultivated area is in Serbia, the most annual yield is in USA, and in Asia, it is cultivated only in China. Recently,blackberry cultivated area in Romania, Poland, Mexico, Chile, Hungary, China and USA increases quickly. Most of fresh blackberry fruits are used for processing because of extremely difficult storage. At abroad, many blackberry cultivars have been bred mainly by traditional breeding methods and assisted by molecular technique, the cultivation technique is very mature and mechanized harvesting has been successfully realized, the organic cultivation system and green house cultivating technique have being also expanded. Blackberry production at abroad faces some problems such as economy, freezing injury, diseases and insect pests, etc. Blackberry was introduced into China in 1986, and extended from 1994.Up to 2010, the area of blackberry in China was about 4 500 hm2, mainly cultivated in Lishui County,Ganyu County and Liyang City of Jiangsu Province. Over 90% of fresh fruits are processed into frozenfruits for export. Based on introduction from abroad and collection of wild germplasm at home, selection and breeding of blackberry were carried out by Chinese researchers, and some cultivars suitable for local cultivating condition were bred and selected. In addition, research work on cultivation and processing techniques of blackberry was also conducted, and some fruit-processed products have been developed.Blackberry industry in China faces some problems including deficiency of cultivars, excessive pesticide residues, poorer cultivating conditions, etc., which is hindering the industry development of blackberry.Because blackberry is suitable for planting in low mountains and hill regions with advantages of short juvenile period, quick economic benefits and high nutritional value, it possesses a bright future to develop in China.

关键词黑莓; 产业现状; 研究进展
Key wordsblackberry ( Rubus spp.); industry status; research progress
作者李维林1, 吴文龙1, 张春红1, 闾连飞1, 王小敏1, 束怀瑞2
所在单位1. 江苏省•中国科学院植物研究所( 南京中山植物园) , 江苏 南京 210014; 2. 山东农业大学, 山东 泰安 271018
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基金项目江苏省科技基础设施建设计划项目( BM2009041; BM2010458) ; 江苏省农业科技自主创新基金项目( CX[10] 109) ; 江苏省基础研究计划重点项目( BK2010069)