2018年6月18日 星期一
四川东拉山短丝木犀群落特征和物种多样性分析
Analyses on characteristics and species diversity of Osmanthus serrulatus community in Dongla Mountain of Sichuan Province
2017年 第26卷 第4期 页码[74-83]
摘要

采用样方法在四川东拉山大峡谷划定24个面积10 m×10 m的样方,对中国特有植物短丝木犀(Osmanthus serrulatus Rehd.)的群落物种组成、群落结构、群落物种多样性特征以及种群径级结构进行了调查和分析。结果表明:该短丝木犀群落共有维管植物78科144属235种,包括蕨类植物8科9属11种,裸子植物2科5属8种,被子植物68科130属216种;优势科较为明显,包括蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、樟科(Lauraceae)、虎耳草科(Saxifragaceae)和忍冬科(Caprifoliaceae)等。该群落以中高位芽植物数量最多,其次为小高位芽植物和矮高位芽植物。该群落季相变化明显,可分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层,以灌木层种类最多(98种);乔木层重要值在3.0%以上的种类有15种,灌木层重要值在5.0%以上的种类有18种,草本层重要值在5.0%以上的种类有14种,其中,短丝木犀的重要值在乔木层和灌木层中均最高,占据绝对优势。该群落种子植物科的分布区类型以泛热带分布型和北温带分布型为主,属的分布区类型则以温带成分占绝对优势,且与东亚植物区系和泛热带区系有一定联系。从该群落物种多样性指数看,Margalef指数为灌木层最高、草本层最低,而Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数和Pielou指数均为草本层最高、乔木层最低;且Margalef指数与Simpson指数和Pielou指数间的相关性较低,而Simpson指数与Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数分别具有显著或极显著相关性。该群落中短丝木犀种群的径级结构可分为5级,其中,Ⅰ级幼树和Ⅴ级大树的数量均较少,Ⅳ级成年个体最多(392株),且Ⅱ级至Ⅳ级个体的数量相近,总体上以中小径级的低龄幼树占优势。综合分析结果显示:该短丝木犀群落是以灌木和草本为主的高山矮林群落,受温带成分影响明显,并与热带成分有一定联系,显示出区系成分的过渡性和复杂性;该群落的物种多样性与其物种数量和分布均匀性有关;短丝木犀为群落建群种,分布集中且优势明显,但该种群处于由相对稳定的演替中期向衰落期演化的过渡阶段。并且,根据调查结果,对该群落的保护提出了一些建议。

Abstract

24 quadrats of area 10 m×10 m were delineated in Grand Canyon of Dongla Mountain of Sichuan Province by using quadrat method, species composition, structure and species diversity of community, and population diameter class structure of the Chinese endemic plant Osmanthus serrulatus Rehd. were investigated and analyzed. The results show that there are 235 species belonging to 144 genera in 78 families of vascular plants in O. serrulatus community, including 11 species belonging to 9 genera in 8 families of pteridophytes, 8 species belonging to 5 genera in 2 families of gymnosperms, and 216 species belonging to 130 genera in 68 families of angiosperms. The dominant families are relatively obvious, including Rosaceae, Lauraceae, Saxifragaceae, and Caprifoliaceae, etc. The number of mesophanerophytes is the highest in the community, followed by microphanerophytes and nanophanerophytes. Seasonal changes of the community are obvious, and the community can be divided into arbor, shrub and herb layers, and there are the most species (98 species) in shrub layer. There are 15 species with the important value above 3.0% in arbor layer, while the numbers of species with the important value above 5.0% are 18 in shrub layer and 14 in herb layer, respectively. Particularly, O. serrulatus has the highest important value in arbor and shrub layers, and occupies absolute advantage. The distribution types in family level of spermatophytes are mainly Pantropic and North Temperate, while temperate element is dominant in genus level, and there are also some relationships with East Asian flora and Pantropic flora. From the view of community species diversity indexes, Margalef index is the highest in shrub layer, but the lowest in herb layer, while Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and Pielou index are the highest in herb layer, but the lowest in arbor layer. Besides, the correlations of Margalef index with Simpson index and Pielou index are low, while those of Simpson index with Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index are significant or extremely significant, respectively. Population diameter class structure of O. serrulatus in the community can be divided into five classes, and the numbers of classⅠ (young tree) and class Ⅴ (big tree) are less, but class Ⅳ (adult individuals) are the most (392 individuals), and the numbers of individuals from class Ⅱ to class Ⅳ are similar, indicating that young trees from small to medium diameter classes are dominant in general. The comprehensive analysis results show that O. serrulatus community is the alpine coppice community mainly composing by shrubs and herbs, and is obviously effected by temperate element, and has a certain relationship with tropical element, which showing transitivity and complexity of floristic element. The species diversity of community is related to species number and distribution uniformity. O. serrulatus is the constructive species in the community with concentrated distribution and obvious advantages, but the population is in the transition stage from relatively stable middle succession to fading stage. And according to the survey results, some suggestions are put forward for the protection of the community.
 

关键词四川东拉山; 短丝木犀; 群落特征; 生活型; 物种多样性; 种群径级结构
Key wordsDongla Mountain of Sichuan Province; Osmanthus serrulatus Rehd.; community characteristics; life form; species diversity; population diameter class structure
作者陈林1a,1b, 杨国栋1a,1b, 钱慧蓉1a,1b, 李龙娜2, 程岩3
所在单位1. 南京林业大学: a. 南方现代林业协同创新中心, b. 生物与环境学院, 江苏 南京 210037; 2. 南京农业大学 农业生物学虚拟仿真实验教学中心, 江苏 南京 210095; 3. 中山陵园管理局, 江苏 南京 210014
点击量251
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31300558); 江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20130972); 江苏省高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD);江苏高校品牌专业建设工程资助项目(TAPP); 南京林业大学高学历人才基金项目(GXL201308)