2024年7月19日 星期五
云南化佛山自然保护区大型真菌多样性及分布特征分析
Analyses of diversity and distribution characteristics of macro-fungi in Huafo Mountain Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province
2012年 第21卷 第1期 页码[111-117]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

对云南化佛山自然保护区大型真菌的种类组成和生态分布特征进行了详细的调查和分析。调查结果表明:该保护区内共有233 种(含亚种、变种和变型)大型真菌,隶属于子囊菌门和担子菌门16 目48 科94 属,其中,红菇科(Russulaceae)、小菇科(Mycenaceae)、丝膜菌科(Cortinariaceae)、多孔菌科(Polyporaceae)、牛肝菌科(Boletaceae)、陀螺菌科(Gomphaceae)和鹅膏科(Amanitaceae)7 个优势科的种数较多,分别含37、22、18、17、16、11 和10 种。具有重要经济价值的大型真菌中包括药用菌59 种、食用菌97 种和毒菌35 种;根据生态类型划分,有虫生菌1 种、木生菌52 种、土生菌39 种、外生菌根菌141 种。该保护区大型真菌的分布与温湿度、林下光照及林龄等生态环境因子的变化有关,具体表现在不同月份、郁闭度和林型条件下,大型真菌的种类组成和数量、优势类群都出现不同的分布特点。6 月份木生菌的种数和个体数最多,8 月份和9 月份外生菌根菌的种数和个体数最多。在郁闭度60% ~70%条件下,以多孔菌科和小菇科种类为主;在郁闭度70% ~80% 的条件下,以红菇科、丝膜菌科和多孔菌科种类为主;在郁闭度80% ~90%条件下,以红菇科、丝膜菌科和牛肝菌科种类为主。在中龄林中大型真菌的种数多于幼龄林,其中,红菇科、丝膜菌科、牛肝菌科和陀螺菌科种类在幼龄林和中龄林中均有分布;鹅膏科种类只分布在中龄林中。根据调查结果,对该保护区大型真菌的保护提出了一些建议。

Abstract

Species composition and ecological distribution characteristics of macro-fungi in Huafo Mountain Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province were investigated and analyzed in detail. The results show that there are 233 species (including subspecies, varieties and forms) belonging to 94 genera of 48 families in 16 orders of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, in which, species number of seven dominant families of Russulaceae, Mycenaceae, Cortinariaceae, Polyporaceae, Boletaceae, Gomphaceae and Amanitaceae are more with 37, 22, 18, 17, 16, 11 and 10 species, respectively. The macro-fungi with important economic values include 59 medicinal fungi, 97 edible fungi and 35 poisonous fungi and according to ecological habitats there are 1 entomogenous, 52 lignicolous, 39 geophilous and 141 ectomycorrhizal fungi. The macro-fungus distribution in this reserve relates to change of ecological environmental factors including temperature, humidity, light illumination under forest and forest age, which appears that species composition and number and dominant taxa of macro-fungi possess different distribution characteristics under different months, canopy densities and forest ages. The number of species and individuals of lignicolous fungi is the most in June, and that of ectomycorrhizal fungi is the most in August and September. The main of fungal species are in Polyporaceae and Mycenaceae under canopy density 60% -70%, those are in Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae and Polyporaceae under canopy density 70% -80% and those are in Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae and Boletaceae under canopy density 80% -90% in this reserve. The species number of macro-fungi in middle aged forest is more than that in young aged forest. In which, species of Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae, Boletaceae and Gomphaceae all distribute in young and middle aged forests, and Amanitaceae species only distribute in middle aged forest. According to these investigation results, some suggestions about conservation of macro-fungus resources in this reserve are put forward.

关键词云南化佛山自然保护区; 大型真菌; 多样性; 生态分布特性; 优势类群
Key wordsHuafo Mountain Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province; macro-fungus; diversity; ecological distribution characteristics; dominant taxon
作者张颖1,2, 许远钊1, 郑志兴1, 柳小康1, 王丽1, 欧晓昆1
所在单位1. 云南大学生命科学学院生态学与地植物学研究所, 云南昆明650091;
2. 西南林业大学林学院云南省森林灾害预警与控制重点实验室, 云南昆明650224
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基金项目西南林业大学科研启动基金项目; 云南省森保重点学科项目(XKZ200905)