2021年12月6日 星期一
伞形科棱子芹属花粉形态特征及其演化意义
Pollen morphological characteristics of Pleurospermum Hoffm. ( Apiaceae ) and its evolution significance
2013年 第22卷 第4期 页码[29-37]    下载全文[2.1MB]  
摘要

采用光学显微镜及扫描电子显微镜观察了国产棱子芹属(Pleurospermum Hoffm.)13 个种类的花粉形态特征。结果显示:供试13 个种类的花粉粒可分为近菱形、近圆形、椭圆形、近长方形和超长方形5 种类型。极轴长度(P)17. 1 ~27. 1 μm,多为20 ~25 μm;赤道轴长度(E)12. 5 ~19. 3 μm,多为13. 6 ~18. 6 μm;P/ E 值为1. 2 ~ 2. 0,多为1. 2 ~1. 5。极面观通常为三角形或近卵状三角形,少数种类为近圆形,仅1 种(太白棱子芹P. giraldii Diels)为三裂圆形;赤道面观多为近菱形、近圆形或椭圆形,少数种类为近长方形,仅1 种(太白棱子芹)为超长方形。萌发孔为三沟孔,大多数种类为角萌发孔,仅云南棱子芹(P. yunnanense Franch.)和太白棱子芹为边萌发孔;沟长达两极或几达两极。赤道区的纹饰密集且多样,大体可分为短皱脑纹、颗粒状纹和细网纹3 类,其中仅岩生棱子芹[P. rupestre(Popov) K. T. Fu et Y. C. Ho]具细网纹;极区纹饰与赤道区常不一致,多为穴状网纹或纹饰不清晰。依据观察结果,讨论了棱子芹属在伞形科中的演化地位以及属内各种类间的演化关系,并结合宏观形态特征及果实解剖特征探讨了棱子芹(P. camtschaticum Hoffm.)、太白棱子芹和矮棱子芹(P. nanum Franch.)的分类问题。

Abstract

Pollen morphological characteristics of thirteen species in Pleurospermum Hoffm. (Apiaceae) from China were observed by LM and SEM. The results show that pollen of thirteen species are divided into five types including subrhomboidal, subcircular, ellipse, subrectangular and super-rectangular shapes. The polar axis length (P) is 17. 1-27. 1 μm with the most of 20-25 μm, equatorial axis length (E) is 12. 5-19. 3 μm with the most of 13. 6-18. 6 μm, and P/ E value is 1. 2-2. 0 with the most of 1. 2-1. 5. Shape of polar view is usually triangular and subovate triangular, a few is subcircular, and only one species ( P. giraldii Diels) is trioblate circular. Shape of equatorial view is usually subrhomboidal, subcircular or ellipse, a few is subrectangular and only one species (P. giraldii) is super-rectangular. Aperture type is the tricolporate, that of the most species is goniotreme, while that of P. yunnanense Franch. and P. giraldii is pleurotreme. Their colporus is longer and reaches to two polar regions or nearly extends to two polar regions. Exine ornamentation of equatorial region is dense and diversified forms, and may be divided into three types of brevistriate crisped cerebroid, granulate and finely reticulate, in which, that of only P. rupestre (Popov) K. T. Fu et Y. C. Ho possesses finely reticulate. Exine ornamentation of polar region differs from that of equatorial region, which are pitted reticulate or unclearly sculpture. According to these observation results, the evolutionary position of Pleurospermum Hoffm. in Apiaceae and the evolutionary relationship among thirteen species in this genus have been analyzed. And also, combined macroscopic morphological features and fruit anatomical characteristics, the classification of P. camtschaticum Hoffm, P. giraldii and P. nanum Franch. has been discussed.

关键词伞形科; 棱子芹属; 花粉类型; 微形态特征; 演化意义
Key wordsApiaceae; Pleurospermum Hoffm.; pollen type; micro-morphological characteristics; evolution significance
作者张勇1,3, 刘启新1, 王利松2,舒璞1, 宋春凤1
所在单位1. 江苏省•中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏南京210014;
2. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京100093; 3. 南京出入境检验检疫局, 江苏南京211106
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基金项目系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室开放课题(LSEB2012-07); 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-YW-Z-0920); 国家自然科学基金资助项目(30370102)