2024年6月17日 星期一
银胶菊叶和花提取物对南方根结线虫的毒杀活性比较
Comparison of nematicidal activity of extracts from leaf and flower of Parthenium hysterophorus against Meloidogyne incognita
2012年 第21卷 第1期 页码[77-82]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

为进一步明确银胶菊(Parthenium hysterophorus L.)的杀线虫活性,对银胶菊叶和花的不同溶剂提取物、甲醇提取物的不同萃取物以及甲醇提取物碱水层的不同极性组分对南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood)的杀虫活性进行了检测,并对不同提取物、萃取物和萃取组分进行了生物碱的定性分析。结果表明:银胶菊叶和花的蒸馏水、甲醇、乙酸乙酯和石油醚提取物的得率分别为24. 5%和20. 3%、19. 6%和10. 9%、6. 8% 和7. 7%、2. 0% 和2. 7%,其中,叶和花的蒸馏水和甲醇提取物的杀线虫活性均较强,而石油醚提取物的杀线虫活性最弱。用质量体积分数1. 0%和0. 5%的叶和花蒸馏水提取物分别处理24 和48 h 后试虫的校正死亡率均达到100. 00%;用质量体积分数1. 0%和0. 5%的叶和花甲醇提取物处理48 h,试虫的校正死亡率均大于90%。叶和花甲醇提取物的碱水层、三氯甲烷Ⅰ层和Ⅱ层萃取物均具有一定的杀线虫活性,其中,用质量体积分数1. 0% 的花和叶碱水层萃取物以及花的三氯甲烷Ⅰ层萃取物分别处理48 h,试虫的校正死亡率均为100. 00%,而三氯甲烷Ⅱ层萃取物的杀线虫活性最弱。银胶菊叶和花甲醇提取物碱水层的11 个不同极性组分(A1 ~ A11)也表现出不同程度的杀线虫活性,其中,用质量体积分数0. 2%和0. 1%花的A2[溶剂为V(三氯甲烷)︰V(甲醇)= 10︰1]和A7也溶剂为V(三氯甲烷)︰V(甲醇)= 1︰1页组分以及叶的A2 和A6[溶剂为V(三氯甲烷)︰V(甲醇)= 2︰1]组分处理48 h 后,试虫的校正死亡率均达100. 00%,显著高于其他组分。定性实验结果表明:银胶菊叶和花中具有杀线虫活性的提取物、萃取物和萃取组分中均含有生物碱。研究结果说明:银胶菊花的杀线虫活性高于叶片,其毒杀活性不仅与提取部位及溶剂的种类和极性有关,还与提取物浓度及作用时间等因素有关。

Abstract

In order to definite the nematicidal activity of Parthenium hysterophorus L., the nematicidal activity of different solvent extracts, different partitioned extracts from methanol extracts and different partitioned constituents from alkaline water layer of methanol extracts from leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus against Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood were detected. And also, alkaloids in different extracts, partitioned extracts and partitioned constituents were analyzed qualitatively. The results show that yield rates of distilled water, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts from leaf and flower are 24. 5% and 20. 3%, 19. 6% and 10. 9%, 6. 8% and 7. 7%, 2. 0% and 2. 7%, respectively, in which, nematicidal activity of distilled water and methanol extracts from leaf and flower against M. incognita all are stronger, but that of petroleum ether extracts are the weakest. The adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 24 and 48 h with 1. 0% and 0. 5% (mass-volume ratio) distilled water extracts from leaf and flower all are 100. 00%, and that treated for 48 h with 1. 0% and 0. 5% (mass-volume ratio) methanol extracts from leaf and flower all are above 90%. The partitioned extracts of alkaline water layer, chloroform. layersⅠand Ⅱof methanol extracts from leaf and flower have a certain degree of nematicidal activity. In which, the adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 48 h with 1. 0% (mass-volume ratio) partitioned extracts of alkaline water layer of flower and leaf and of chloroform. layerⅠof flower all are 100. 00%, but the nematicidal activity of partitioned extracts of chloroform. layer Ⅱis the weakest. Eleven constituents (A1-A11) with different polarities separated from the alkaline water layer of methanol extracts from leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus appear the nematicidal activity with different degrees. In which, the adjusted mortality of M. incognita respectively treated for 48 h with 0. 2% and 0. 1% (mass-volume ratio) constituents of A2 [olvent V(chloroform)︰V(methanol)= 10︰1]and A7 [solvent V(chloroform)︰V(methanol)= 1︰1]of flower, and that of A2 and A6 [solvent V(chloroform) ︰V(methanol)= 2︰1]of leaf all are 100. 00%, which are significantly higher than that of other constituents. The qualitative test results show that extracts, partitioned extracts and partitioned constituents of leaf and flower of P. hysterophorus which have the nematicidal activity all contain alkaloids. It is suggested that nematicidal activity of flower of P. hysterophorus is higher than that of its leaf. And its nematicidal activity relates not only to plant parts and kind and polarity of solvents, but also to concentration and treatment time of extracts.

 

关键词银胶菊; 提取物; 南方根结线虫; 校正死亡率; 生物碱
Key wordsParthenium hysterophorus L.; extracts; Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood; adjusted mortality; alkaloids
作者苏秀荣a, 谢宁b, 张纪龙a, 王金信b
所在单位山东农业大学: a. 化学与材料科学学院, b. 植物保护学院, 山东泰安271018
点击量1379
下载次数894
基金项目山东农业大学青年科技创新基金项目(23620); 山东农业大学博士点基金项目(76235)