2024年7月21日 星期日
城市森林公园景观环保型林相改造模式比较及评价———以老山国家森林公园为例
Comparison and evaluation of improvement model of forest form for landscape and environmental protection in urban forest park: taking Laoshan National Forest Park as an example
2011年 第20卷 第3期 页码[89-94]    下载全文[0.7MB]  
摘要

 以实现景观和环保 2 项功能为主要目标,对老山国家森林公园的 4 类群落林相进行改造,分别将马尾松(Pinus massoniana)纯林群落( A1 )、朴树( Celtis sinensis) 纯林群落( B1 )、水杉-侧柏( Metasequoia glyptostroboides -Platycladus orientalis)针叶混交林群落(C1 )和以落叶树为主的麻栎-朴树( Quercus acutissima-Celtis sinensis)阔叶混交林群落(D1 )改 造 成 马 尾 松-锦绣杜鹃(P. massoniana-Rhododendron pulchrum) 群落(A2 )、朴树-乌桕-桂花-枸骨-红叶石楠-绵枣儿(C. sinensis-Sapium sebiferum-Osmanthus fragrans-Ilex cornuta-Photinia×fraseri ‘ Red Robin’ -Scilla scilloides)混交林群落( B2 )、水杉-侧柏-枫香树-构树-棕榈-阔叶山麦冬( M. glyptostroboides-P. orientalisLiquidambar formosana-Broussonetia papyrifera-Trachycarpus fortunei-Liriope platyphylla) 针阔叶混交林群落( C2 )和以常绿树为主的麻栎-朴树-香樟-女贞-桂花-凤尾丝兰-海桐-阔叶山麦冬-络石( Q. acutissima - C. sinensis -Cinnamomum camphora-Ligustrum lucidum-Osmanthus fragran-Yucca gloriosa -Pittosporum tobira -Liriope platyphylla -Trachelospermum jasminoides)阔叶混交林群落(D2 )。 应用层次分析法(AHP),从群落结构和群落效益 2 方面,选取郁闭度、物种丰富度、构景层次、树冠水平投影重叠面积、常绿落叶比、吸收有害气体能力、滞尘与杀菌能力、季相变化、景观优美度和游憩资源 10 项评价指标,根据各指标的权重和赋值建立了城市森林公园景观环保型林相改造模式的评价体系。 评价结果显示:改造后的群落林相各项指标得分值及综合评分值均高于改造前的群落,特别是群落 D2的构景层次、季相变化与景观优美度最佳,对环境的净化功能最强,实现了景观与环境保护的有机结合。 结果表明:城市森林公园景观环保型群落模式改造既要考虑植物自身的生理生态特征,也要注重植物的个体美与群体美等因素。

Abstract

Taking two functions of landscape and environmental protection as a main target, improvement
of four types of forest form. in Laoshan National Forest Park was carried out. Pure forest community of Pinus massoniana ( A1 ), pure forest community of Celtis sinensis ( B1 ), coniferous mixed forest community of Metasequoia glyptostroboides-Platycladus orientalis ( C1 ) and broadleaved mixed forest community of Quercus acutissima-Celtis sinensis (D1) mainly containing deciduous tree were respectively transformed to community of Pinus massoniana-Rhododendron pulchrum (A2), mixed forest community of Celtis sinensis-Sapium sebiferum-Osmanthus fragrans-Ilex cornuta-Photinia × fraseri ‘ Red Robin’-Scilla scilloides ( B2 ), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest community of Metasequoia glyptostroboides-Platycladus orientalis-Liquidambar formosana-Broussonetia papyrifera-Trachycarpus fortunei-Liriope platyphylla (C2) and broadleaved mixed forest community of Quercus acutissima-Celtis sinensis-Cinnamomum camphora-Ligustrum lucidum-Osmanthus fragran-Yucca gloriosa-Pittosporum tobira-Liriope platyphylla-Trachelospermum jasminoides (D2) mainly containing evergreen tree. And taking two aspects of community structure and benefit, selecting ten evaluation indexes including canopy density, species richness, landscape-level structure, crown horizontal projection overlap area, ratio of evergreen to deciduous species, absorption ability to harmful gas, sluggish dust and sterilization ability, seasonal change, landscape beautiful degree and recreation resources and according to weight and valuation of every index, the evaluation system of improvement model of forest form. for landscape and environmental protection in urban forest park was established by analytic hierarchy process ( AHP). The evaluation result shows that scores of different indexes and comprehensive scores of forest form. for different communities after transformation all are higher than those before transformation. Especially, landscape-level structure, seasonal change and landscape beautiful degree of community D2 are the best with the
strongest environmental purification function, realizing the organic combination of landscape and
environmental protection. It is suggested that improvement of community model for landscape and environmental protection in urban forest park must consider physiological-ecological characteristics of plant itself, and also emphasize beauty of individual plant and community.

关键词城市森林公园; 群落模式; 林相改造; 景观; 环保; 评价体系
Key wordsurban forest park; community model; forest form improvement; landscape; environmental protection; evaluation system
作者祝遵凌1, 何伟1, 张光宁2
所在单位1. 南京林业大学风景园林学院, 江苏 南京 210037; 2. 江苏省• 中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014
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基金项目江苏省林业三项工程项目[lysx(2009)02]; 江苏省建设科技项目(JS2010JH24)