2018年8月17日 星期五
氮、磷、钾肥配施对甜菊生长、产量及糖苷相关指标的影响
Effects of combined application of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers on related indexes of growth, yield, and glycoside in Stevia rebaudiana
2018年 第27卷 第1期 页码[17-26]
摘要

为了探明甜菊(Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)的适宜施肥量,采用“3414”肥料试验设计对甜菊品种‘中山4号’(‘Zhongshan No. 4’)的当年生扦插苗进行了盆栽实验,比较了不同氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾(K2O)配施条件下甜菊产量相关指标(包括株高、茎粗、叶长、叶宽、叶中光合色素含量和单株叶干质量)及叶中糖苷〔包括甜菊苷(St)、莱鲍迪苷A(R-A)和总苷〕含量和单株积累量的差异,并对拟合的肥料效应方程进行了分析。结果表明:T2组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为300、200和600 mg·kg-1)的株高和叶中光合色素含量以及T6组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为600、300和600 mg·kg-1)的茎粗均最高;T9组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为600、200和900 mg·kg-1)的叶长以及T13组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为600、100和300 mg·kg-1)的叶宽均最大;T4组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为600、100和600 mg·kg-1)的单株叶干质量最高。T1组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为0、200和600 mg·kg-1)的St含量略低于CK组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量均为0 mg·kg-1),但高于其余施肥处理组,并且多数施肥处理组的St含量显著低于CK组;T5组(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为600、200和600 mg·kg-1)的R-A和总苷含量,T9组的St单株积累量以及T4组的R-A和总苷单株积累量均最高,且T5组的R-A和总苷单株积累量略低于T4组。极差分析结果表明:3种肥料中,氮肥对甜菊株高、茎粗、叶宽、叶中光合色素含量、单株叶干质量、St和R-A含量及R-A和总苷单株积累量的影响最大,而钾肥对其叶长、总苷含量和St单株积累量的影响最大。根据拟合的肥料效应方程,单株叶干质量为最高值(4.588 g)时,N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为701.11、160.20和793.91 mg·kg-1;总苷含量为最高值(24.71%)时,N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为365.26、176.96和528.35 mg·kg-1。综合考虑单株叶干质量和总苷含量,并结合拟合的肥料效应方程,适宜甜菊的N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为365.26~701.11、160.20~176.96和528.35~793.91 mg·kg-1

Abstract

In order to explore the suitable fertilizing amount of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, pot-culture experiment of annual cutting seedlings of cultivar ‘Zhongshan No. 4’ of S. rebaudiana was carried out by using “3414” fertilizer test design, differences in yield related indexes (including height, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, photosynthetic pigment content in leaf, and leaf dry weight per plant), and glycoside 〔including stevioside (St), rebaudioside A (R-A), and total glycoside〕 content in leaf and its accumulation per plant of S. rebaudiana were compared under different combined application conditions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5), and potassium (K2O), and fitting fertilizer effect equations were analyzed. The results show that height and photosynthetic pigment content in leaf in T2 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 300, 200, and 600 mg·kg-1, respectively) and stem diameter in T6 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 600, 300, and 600 mg·kg-1, respectively) are the highest; leaf length in T9 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 600, 200, and 900 mg·kg-1, respectively) and leaf width in T13 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 600, 100, and 300 mg·kg-1, respectively) are the largest; leaf dry weight per plant in T4 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 600, 100, and 600 mg·kg-1, respectively) is the highest. St content in T1 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 0, 200, and 600 mg·kg-1, respectively) is slightly lower than that in CK group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 0 mg·kg-1), but higher than that in other fertilizer treatment groups, and that in most fertilizer treatment groups is significantly lower than that in CK group; R-A and total glycoside contents in T5 group (N, P2O5, and K2O applying amount of 600, 200, and 600 mg·kg-1, respectively), St accumulation per plant in T9 group, and R-A and total glycoside accumulations per plant in T4 group are the highest, and R-A and total glycoside accumulations per plant in T5 group are slightly lower than those in T4 group. The range analysis result shows that among three fertilizers, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on height, stem diameter, leaf width, photosynthetic pigment content in leaf, leaf dry weight per plant, St and R-A contents, and R-A and total glycoside accumulations per plant of S. rebaudiana is the greatest, while that of potassium fertilizer on its leaf length, total glycoside content, and St accumulation per plant is the greatest. According to fitting fertilizer effect equations, with the highest value (4.588 g) of leaf dry weight per plant, the optimal applying amounts of N, P2O5, and K2O are 701.11, 160.20, and 793.91 mg·kg-1, respectively; with the highest value (24.71%) of total glycoside content, the optimal applying amounts of N, P2O5, and K2O are 365.26, 176.96, and 528.35 mg·kg-1, respectively. Comprehensively considering leaf dry weight per plant and total glycoside content, and combining fitting fertilizer effect equations, the applying amounts of N, P2O5, and K2O suitable for S. rebaudiana are 365.26-701.11, 160.20-176.96, and 528.35-793.91 mg·kg-1, respectively.
 

关键词甜菊; 氮、磷、钾肥配施; 生长指标; 叶干质量; 糖苷积累量; 肥料效应方程
Key wordsStevia rebaudiana Bertoni; combined application of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizers; growth index; leaf dry weight; glycoside accumulation; fertilizer effect equation
作者杨永恒, 张永侠, 徐晓洋, 孙玉明, 包亚英, 黄苏珍, 佟海英
所在单位江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014
点击量200
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31601371); 江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK20160600)