2024年2月25日 星期日
刈割对入侵植物牛膝菊生长和繁殖特征的影响
Effects of mowing on growth and reproductive characteristics of invasive plant Galinsoga parviflora
2022年 第31卷 第6期 页码[34-42]    下载全文[1.4MB]  
摘要

本研究以未刈割为对照,设置轻度刈割(剪除株高的1/4)、中度刈割(剪除株高的1/2)和重度刈割(剪除株高的3/4)3个强度以及3个频次(刈割1、2和3次)的刈割处理;研究刈割对牛膝菊(Galinsoga parviflora Cav.)生长和繁殖特征的影响,并比较不同刈割处理下牛膝菊干质量补偿指数差异。结果显示:刈割强度和刈割频次对牛膝菊生长和有性生殖特征有极显著或显著影响。总体上看,与对照相比,刈割处理会减少牛膝菊分枝数、茎干质量和叶干质量,促进其分枝伸长。重度刈割会明显降低茎干质量、叶干质量、总干质量和茎干质量分配;刈割3次会明显减少牛膝菊茎干质量、叶干质量、花序干质量、百粒质量、茎干质量分配、叶干质量分配和生殖分配,增加根干质量和根干质量分配。刈割1和2次的牛膝菊会将资源优先分配到繁殖器官。轻度刈割3次的牛膝菊种子干质量和种子数最大且显著高于其他处理组,而百粒质量显著低于对照;重度刈割3次的牛膝菊种子干质量和种子数明显低于对照。说明牛膝菊在面对外界频繁干扰时会首先产生小而多的种子,实现种群的扩散和延续,但当干扰超过一定强度时,其有性生殖会受到抑制。此外,牛膝菊干质量补偿指数总体随着刈割强度的增加而降低,重度刈割均会使牛膝菊出现显著的欠补偿生长。总之,刈割能够控制牛膝菊的地上部分生长,多次重度刈割可抑制其有性生殖,最终实现有效防控。

Abstract

In this study, no mowing was taken as the control, and three mowing intensities namely light mowing (cutting off 1/4 of plant height), moderate mowing (cutting off 1/2 of plant height), and severe mowing (cutting off 3/4 of plant height) and three mowing frequencies (one, two, and three times of mowing) were set as the mowing treatments. The effects of mowing on growth and reproductive characteristics of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. were studied, and the differences in dry mass compensation index of G. parviflora under different mowing treatments were compared. The results show that mowing intensity and frequency have extremely significant or significant effects on growth and sexual reproductive characteristics of G. parviflora. In general, compared with the control, mowing treatment will decrease the branch number, stem dry mass, and leaf dry mass of G. parviflora, and promote its branch elongation. Severe mowing treatment will evidently decrease stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, total dry mass, and stem dry mass allocation; three times of mowing will evidently decrease stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, inflorescence dry mass, 100-grain mass, stem dry mass allocation, leaf dry mass allocation, and reproductive allocation of G. parviflora, and increase root dry mass and root dry mass allocation. G. parviflora under one and two times of mowing will preferentially allocate the resources to reproductive organs. The seed dry mass and seed number of G. parviflora under three times of light mowing are the largest and are significantly higher than those of the other treatment groups, while its 100-grain mass is significantly lower than that of the control; the seed dry mass and seed number of G. parviflora under three times of severe mowing are obviously lower than those of the control. It is indicated that G. parviflora will first produce small but many seeds when facing frequent external interferences to achieve the diffusion and extension of population, but when the interferences exceed certain intensities, its sexual reproduction will be suppressed. In addition, the dry mass compensation index of G. parviflora generally decreases with the increase of mowing intensity, severe mowing will cause significant under-compensatory growth of G. parviflora. Overall, mowing can control the growth of above-ground part of G. parviflora, and multiple severe mowing can suppress its sexual reproduction and finally achieve effective prevention and control.

关键词入侵植物; 牛膝菊; 刈割; 表型可塑性; 补偿生长; 繁殖策略
Key wordsinvasive plant; Galinsoga parviflora Cav.; mowing; phenotypic plasticity; compensatory growth; reproductive strategy
作者初丽爽1a,1b,1c, 李海燕1a,1b,1c, 杨允菲1a,1b,1c, 郭健2
所在单位1. 东北师范大学: a. 草地科学研究所, b. 植被生态科学教育部重点实验室,
c. 吉林松嫩草地生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站, 吉林 长春 130024; 2. 徐州工程学院环境工程学院, 江苏 徐州 221018
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基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(32171682; 31670427; 31672471); 吉林省自然科学基金项目(20220101290JC); “111”引智基地项目(B16011)