2024年2月25日 星期日
吉林省非林地栽参基地土壤和人参根部重金属元素含量分析及风险评价
Content analysis and risk evaluation of heavy metal elements in soil and ginseng root from non-forestedland base with cultivated ginseng in Jilin Province
2015年 第24卷 第3期 页码[68-76]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

为了全面了解吉林省非林地栽参基地土壤和人参(Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.)根部重金属元素的含量及潜在风险,对抚松县(24 个样点)和集安市(21 个样点)非林地栽参基地的土壤和人参根部Pb、As、Cd、Cu 和Zn 含量进行测定,并采用单因子污染指数、综合污染指数和潜在生态风险指数对土壤重金属污染状况及潜在生态风险进行评价,同时对人参根部的重金属安全性进行评价。结果表明:Pb、As、Cd、Cu 和Zn 平均含量在抚松县基地土壤中分别为23. 89、7. 08、0. 19、19. 08 和81. 00 mg·kg-1 ,而在集安市基地土壤中分别为28. 65、7. 81、0. 20、20. 72 和81. 32 mg·kg-1 。2 个基地土壤中Cd 含量的变异系数均最高,说明2 个基地土壤中的Cd 含量受人为因素影响较大。单因子污染指数评价结果表明2 个基地土壤重金属元素的单因子污染指数平均值均低于0. 7,并且均以Cd 为最高,其次是Zn 和Cu,As 和Pb 较低;各样点5 种重金属元素的单因子污染指数基本上均低于1。抚松县和集安市土壤的重金属综合污染指数平均值分别为0. 51 和0. 55,其中,抚松县3 号样点和集安市21 号土壤的重金属综合污染指数高于1,其余各样点土壤的重金属综合污染指数均低于1,说明2 个基地土壤重金属污染总体处于清洁水平。2 个基地土壤Cd 单因子潜在生态风险指数均最高(均明显高于40),其余重金属元素单因子潜在生态风险指数均低于40,说明Cd 是最主要的潜在生态风险贡献因子。从土壤重金属的综合污染潜在生态风险指数来看,抚松县3 号样点和集安市21 号样点土壤重金属的综合污染潜在生态风险均处于中等水平,其他样点土壤则处于轻微水平。Pb、As、Cd、Cu 和Zn 平均含量在抚松县产人参根部分别为0. 11、0. 07、0. 12、8. 76 和19. 67 mg·kg-1,在集安市产人参根部分别为0. 13、0. 06、0. 29、7. 46 和23. 60 mg·kg-1。其中,抚松县产人参根部的Pb、As、Cd 和Cu 平均含量均低于重金属污染物的限量值,集安市产人参根部的Pb、As 和Cu 平均含量也低于限量值。总体来看,目前吉林省抚松县和集安市非林地栽参基地的土壤环境质量良好,所产人参质量基本符合国家标准,但个别样点土壤的Cd污染潜在生态风险较高,应及时采取防御措施。

Abstract

In order to comprehensively understand contents of heavy metal elements and potential risk in soil and ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.) root from non-forestedland base with cultivated ginseng in Jilin Province, contents of Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Zn in soil and ginseng root from non-forestedland base with cultivated ginseng in Fusong County (including 24 sampling points) and Ji’an City (including 21sampling points) were detected, and soil heavy metal pollution status and potential ecological risk were evaluated by single factor pollution index, comprehensive pollution index and potential ecological risk index, meanwhile, heavy metal safety of ginseng root was evaluated. The results show that average contents of Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Zn in base soil of Fusong County are 23. 89, 7. 08, 0. 19, 19. 08 and 81. 00 mg·kg-1, respectively, while those in base soil of Ji’an City are 28. 65, 7. 81, 0. 20, 20. 72 and 81. 32 mg·kg-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of Cd content in soil of two bases is the highest, indicating that Cd content in soil of two bases is greatly influenced by human factors. The result of single factor pollution index evaluation shows that average of single factor pollution index of each heavy metal element in soil of two bases is lower than 0. 7, and that of Cd is the highest, followed by Zn and Cu, that of As and Pb is lower. Single factor pollution indexes of five heavy metal elements of each sampling point are basically lower than 1. Averages of soil heavy metal comprehensive pollution index of Fusong County and Ji’an City are 0. 51 and 0. 55,respectively,in which,soil heavy metal comprehensive pollution indexes of No. 3 sampling point of Fusong County and No. 21 sampling point of Ji’an City are higher than 1, those of other sampling points all are lower than 1, meaning that soil heavy metal pollutions of two bases are generally at clean level. Single factor potential ecological risk indexes of Cd in soil of two bases both are the highest (obviously higher than 40), those of other heavy metal elements all are lower than 40, indicating that Cd is the most important potential ecological risk contribution factor. From comprehensive potential ecological risk index of heavy metal in soil, comprehensive pollution ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of No. 3 sampling point of Fusong County and No. 21 sampling point of Ji’an City all are at moderate level, that of other sampling points are at mild level. Average contents of Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Zn in ginseng root from Fusong County are 0. 11, 0. 07, 0. 12, 8. 76 and 19. 67 mg·kg-1, respectively, while those in ginseng root from Ji’an City are 0. 13, 0. 06, 0. 29, 7. 46 and 23. 60 mg·kg-1, respectively. In which, Pb, As, Cd and Cu average contents in ginseng root from Fusong County all are lower than limited value of heavy metal pollutants, and Pb, As and Cu contents in ginseng root from Ji’an City are also lower than the limited value. Overall, soil environment quality of non-forestedland base with cultivated ginseng in Fusong County and Ji’an City of Jilin Province are fine at present, quality of ginseng produced by them is accord with national standard, but potential ecological risk of Cd pollution in soil of a few sampling points is higher, so protective measures should be taken in time.

关键词非林地栽参基地; 土壤; 人参; 重金属元素含量; 污染指数; 潜在生态风险指数
Key wordsnon-forestedland base with cultivated ginseng; soil; Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.; content of heavy metal elements; pollution index; potential ecological risk index
作者梁尧1, 姜晓莉1, 李刚1, 任红菲2, 杨粉团1, 曹庆军1
所在单位吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 吉林长春130033; 2. 吉林农业大学中药材学院, 吉林长春130118
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基金项目吉林省博士后科研项目(RB201321); 吉林省科技发展计划重大项目(20126046)