2024年2月25日 星期日
13 种竹类植物的果实形态特征
Fruit morphological characteristics of thirteen bamboo species
2016年 第25卷 第4期 页码[96-103]    下载全文[2.2MB]  
摘要

对 9 属 13 种竹类植物的果实形态特征进行了观察和描述,并对果实形态指标(包括带稃长、带稃宽、带稃长宽比、去稃长、去稃宽、去稃长宽比以及千粒质量)进行了方差分析和变异系数( CV)分析。 结果表明:13 种竹类植物果实均为基本型颖果,外带内、外稃,果皮质薄不开裂;外稃顶端多数不具芒;果实多具明显的腹部纵沟槽;稃片颜色多呈灰褐色、黄褐色、棕色、灰色或灰绿色;成熟果实颜色多为棕色、棕黑色、棕红色、黄棕色、灰色、灰褐色、黄褐色、黑褐色或褐色;果实形状基本为椭圆形类、卵圆形类和长圆柱形类。 供试 13 种竹类植物间的果实带稃长、带稃宽、带稃长宽比、去稃长、去稃宽、去稃长宽比以及千粒质量均有极显著差异,并且这 7 个指标的种间 CV 值分别为 34. 60% 、28. 19% 、54. 63% 、21. 22% 、27. 96% 、38. 19% 和 57. 38% ,但各指标的种内 CV 值明显小于其种间 CV值。 综合分析结果显示:果实竹类植物果实外稃顶端是否具芒、稃片颜色、稃片对果实的包裹程度、稃片长度与果实长度的关系、去稃果实形状、成熟果实颜色、腹部纵沟槽是否明显和花柱是否宿存等特征可作为竹类植物属和种分类的参考依据;其中,果实千粒质量、带稃长宽比和去稃长宽比较果实长和宽更适合作为竹类植物种的分类依据。 此外,13 种竹类植物中,刚竹属( Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc.)刚竹组( Sect. Phyllostachys)的毛竹[ Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) J. Houz.]、淡竹(P. glauca McClure)和乌哺鸡竹(P. vivax McClure)的果实形态极其相似,均具有较长的宿存花柱,明显异于其他竹类植物的果实,可将此特征作为刚竹属种类的识别特征之一。

Abstract

Morphological characteristics of fruit of thirteen bamboo species in nine genera were observed and described, and variance analysis and coefficient of variation (CV) analysis on morphological indexes of fruit (including length with glume, width with glume, ratio of length to width with glume, length without glume, width without glume, ratio of length to width without glume and 1 000-grain mass) were carried out. The results show that fruits of thirteen bamboo species all are typical caryopsis with glumelle and lemma outside, thin pericarp and indehiscence; top of most lemmas without awn; most fruits with obvious longitudinal groove of abdomen; color of most glumes of taupe, tawny, brown, grey or greyish green; color of most mature fruits of brown, brownish black, brownish red, yellowish brown, grey, taupe, tawny, black brown or brownness; shape of fruit basically being elliptical type, ovoid type and long cylindrical type. There are extremely significant differences in length with glume, width with glume, ratio of length to width with glume, length without glume, width without glume, ratio of length to width without glume and 1 000-grain mass of fruit among thirteen bamboo species tested, and interspecific CV values of these seven indexes are 34. 60% , 28. 19% , 54. 63% , 21. 22% , 27. 96% , 38. 19% and 57. 38% , respectively, but intraspecific CV values of them are obviously smaller than their interspecific CV values. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that characteristics of fruit of bamboo species, such as with awn or not, glume color, coating degree of glume on fruit, relationship between glume length and fruit length, shape of fruit without glume, color of mature fruit, obvious longitudinal groove of abdomen or not and persistent style. or not and so on can be used as taxon reference for genus and species of bamboo plants, in which, compared with length and width of fruit, 1 000-grain mass, ratio of length to width with glume and ratio of length to width without glume are more suitable for being used as taxonomic reference for species of bamboo plants. Furthermore, among thirteen bamboo species, fruit morphology of Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) J. Houz., P. glauca McClure and P. vivax McClure in Sect. Phyllostachys of Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc. are very similar, their fruits all possess longer persistent style, and are obviously different from fruit of other bamboo species, so this characteristics may be used as one of identification characteristics to Phyllostachys species.

关键词竹类植物; 果实; 形态特征; 分类学意义
Key wordsbamboo species; fruit; morphological characteristics; taxonomic signification
作者郑 笑a,b, 姜明云a,b, 张莉a,b, 林树燕a,c,丁雨龙a,c
所在单位南京林业大学: a. 南方现代林业协同创新中心, b. 生物与环境学院, c. 竹类研究所, 江苏 南京 210037
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基金项目“十三五冶 国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0600901 ); 国家林业局推广项目([ 2014 ] 41 号); 科技支撑计划( 农业) 重点项目(BE2016304); 江苏省林业三新工程项目(LYSX[2016]04); 江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)