2018年5月28日 星期一
浙江安吉金钱松群落特征研究
Study on community characteristics of Pseudolarix amabilis in Anji County of Zhejiang Province
2018年 第27卷 第1期 页码[91-99]
摘要

采用群落生态学研究方法,在浙江安吉金钱松〔Pseudolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) Rehd.〕典型分布区设置10个样地,对群落的物种组成、种子植物区系特征和垂直结构,乔木层和灌木层主要种类的重要值以及群落相似性进行了分析。结果表明:该群落共有种子植物43科65属84种,其中,含单种属的科较多;乔木层中水竹(Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliv.)、金钱松和毛竹〔Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) J. Houz.〕株数较多,分别占乔木层植物总株数的32.2%、27.1%和23.0%,而灌木层种类的分布却较分散。频度分析结果表明:该群落低频度级种类的比例大于高频度级种类,且频度级达到E级(频度为81%~100%)的木本植物只有金钱松1种。该群落属的分布区类型有12个,以温带成分为主,且温带成分与热带成分的比值(T/R)为2.9。该群落垂直结构明显,可分成乔木层、灌木层和草本层3个层次,且层间植物较少,乔木层和灌木层还可进一步分成3个亚层。该群落乔木层中金钱松、水竹和毛竹的重要值较高,分别为38.76%、18.14%和12.86%;而灌木层中山橿(Lindera reflexa Hemsl.)、水竹、茶〔Camellia sinensis (Linn.) Kuntze〕和山胡椒〔Lindera glauca (Sieb. et Zucc.) Blume〕的重要值较高,分别为11.44%、11.42%、10.82%和10.17%。UPGMA聚类分析和非度量多维尺度分析(NMDS)结果表明:供试10个样地的金钱松群落可分成3个类群,分别命名为金钱松+檫木+毛竹-山橿+山胡椒+水竹-三脉紫菀群丛(Assoc. Pseudolarix amabilis+Sassafras tzumu+Phyllostachys edulis-Lindera reflexa+Lindera glauca+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Aster ageratoides)、金钱松-水竹群-早熟禾群丛(Assoc. Pseudolarix amabilis-Phyllostachys heteroclada-Poa annua)和毛竹+金钱松-蛇莓群丛(Assoc. Phyllostachys edulis+Pseudolarix amabilis-Duchesnea indica)。研究结果显示:浙江安吉金钱松群落物种组成分散,优势科属不明显,温带性质较强,并且,金钱松在群落中的优势地位可能被竹类植物取代。建议从生物学特性、群落种间竞争及环境因子(尤其是人为干扰)等方面考虑制定金钱松的保护措施。

 

Abstract

By using research methods of community ecology, ten plots were set in typical distribution area of Pseudolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) Rehd. in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, and species composition, spermatophyte floristic characteristics and vertical structure of the community, important value of main species in arbor and shrub layers, and community similarity were analyzed. The results show that there are 84 species of spermatophytes in 65 genera belonging to 43 families, in which, the families containing monotypic genus are more. Individual numbers of Phyllostachys heteroclada Oliv., P. amabilis, and Phyllostachys edulis (Carr.) J. Houz. in arbor layer are more, which account for 32.2%, 27.1%, and 23.0% of total individual number of species in arbor layer, respectively, but distribution of species in shrub layer is relatively dispersed. The frequency analysis result shows that percentage of low frequency grade species in this community is greater than that of high frequency grade species, and frequency grade of woody plant reaching E level (frequency of 81%-100%) is only one species of P. amabilis. There are 12 genus distribution types in this community, in which, temperate element is main, and the ratio of temperate element to tropical element (T/R) is 2.9. The vertical structure of this community is clear, and can be divided into three layers of arbor, shrub, and herb layers, and there are few interlayer plants; arbor and shrub layers can be further divided into three sub-layers. The important values of P. amabilis, P. heteroclada, and P. edulis in arbor layer of this community are relatively high, which are 38.76%, 18.14%, and 12.86%, respectively, while those of Lindera reflexa Hemsl., P. heteroclada, Camellia sinensis (Linn.) Kuntze, and Lindera glauca (Sieb. et Zucc.) Blume in shrub layer are relatively high, which are 11.44%, 11.42%, 10.82%, and 10.17%, respectively. The results of UPGMA cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) show that P. amabilis community of ten plots tested can be divided into three groups, which are named as Assoc. Pseudolarix amabilis+Sassafras tzumu+Phyllostachys edulis-Lindera reflexa+Lindera glauca+Phyllostachys heteroclada-Aster ageratoides, Assoc. Pseudolarix amabilis-Phyllostachys heteroclada-Poa annua, and Assoc. Phyllostachys edulis+Pseudolarix amabilis-Duchesnea indica, respectively. It is suggested that species composition of P. amabilis community in Anji County of Zhejiang Province is dispersed, its dominant family and genus are not obvious, and its temperate nature is relatively strong; furthermore, the dominant position of P. amabilis in the community may be replaced by bamboo species. Conservation measures of P. amabilis should be considered to formulate based on biological characteristics, interspecific competition of community, and environmental factors (especially human disturbance), etc.

关键词金钱松; 群落特征; 物种组成; 区系特征; 重要值; 相似性
Key wordsPseudolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) Rehd.; community characteristics; species composition; floristic characteristics; important value; similarity
作者谢春平1,2, 南程慧1,2, 伊贤贵2, 吴显坤1,2, 刘大伟1
所在单位1. 南京森林警察学院刑事科学技术学院, 江苏 南京 210023; 2. 南京林业大学生物与环境学院, 江苏 南京 210037
点击量61
基金项目中央高校基本科研业务经费项目(LGYB201709); “十三五”江苏省重点建设学科项目(2016—2020)