2024年7月15日 星期一
不同生物质炭对蓝莓幼苗叶片光合性能和生长的影响
Effects of different biochars on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and growth of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) seedlings
2023年 第32卷 第1期 页码[69-76]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

通过盆栽试验,研究添加不同用量蓝莓枝条生物质炭和玉米秸秆生物质炭对黄棕壤理化性质及蓝莓(Vaccinium spp.)幼苗叶片光合性能和生长指标的影响。结果表明:与纯土对照(CK0)相比,施用生物质炭显著降低了土壤容重,显著提高了土壤总孔隙度。与CK0处理相比较,添加体积分数10%和20%生物质炭后,蓝莓幼苗叶片叶绿素含量指数(CCI)、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)均有所提高。添加体积分数20%生物质炭后,蓝莓幼苗各光合指标与常规土壤改良对照〔V(土壤)∶V(草炭)∶V(珍珠岩)=60∶20∶20,CK1〕无显著差异。2种生物质炭均以添加量为体积分数20%时对蓝莓幼苗生长的促进作用最大;其中,与CK0处理相比,添加20%玉米秸秆生物质炭处理〔V(土壤)∶V(玉米秸秆生物质炭)∶V(珍珠岩)=60∶20∶20,CB20〕可显著提高蓝莓幼苗单株的总枝长、总叶面积、地上部干质量和总干质量,且除单株总叶面积显著低于常规土壤改良对照外,CB20处理的其余各生长指标均与常规土壤改良对照无显著差异。对单株总干质量与生物质炭添加量进行回归分析发现,玉米秸秆生物质炭最佳添加量为17.1%。综上所述,在黄棕壤中添加适量玉米秸秆生物质炭可促进蓝莓植株生长,玉米秸秆生物质炭在蓝莓栽培土壤改良上具有一定的应用潜力。

Abstract

Effects of different application amounts of blueberry branch biochar and corn straw biochar on physicochemical properties of yellowbrown soil and leaf photosynthetic characteristics and growth indexes of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) seedlings were studied by using a pot experiment. The results show that compared with pure soil control (CK0), application of biochar significantly decreases soil bulk density but significantly increases total soil porosity. Compared with CK0 treatment, chlorophyll content index (CCI), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of leaf of blueberry seedlings all increase after application of 10% and 20% volume fractions of biochar. After application of 20% volume fraction of biochar, there are no significant differences between each photosynthetic index of blueberry seedlings and those of conventional soil improvement control 〔V(soil)∶V(peat)∶V(perlite)=60∶20∶20, CK1〕. The promotion effects of two kinds of biochars on seedling growth of blueberry are the highest at the application amount of 20% volume fraction; in which, 20% corn straw biochar application treatment 〔V(soil)∶V(corn straw biochar)∶V(perlite)=60∶20∶20, CB20〕 can significantly increase total stem length, total leaf area, dry mass of above-ground part and total dry mass per plant of blueberry seedlings, and there are no significant differences in each growth index between CB20 treatment and conventional soil improvement control except that total leaf area per plant of CB20 treatment is significantly lower than that of conventional soil improvement control. Regression analysis is conducted for total dry mass per plant and application amount of biochar, which reveals that the optimum application amount of corn straw biochar is 17.1%. In conclusion, application of suitable amount of corn straw biochar into yellowbrown soil can promote the growth of blueberry plants, and corn straw biochar has certain application potential in improvement of blueberry cultivated soil.

关键词生物质炭; 蓝莓; 土壤理化性质; 叶片光合性能; 生长量
Key wordsbiochar; blueberry (Vaccinium spp.); soil physicochemical properties; leaf photosynthetic characteristics; increment
作者韦继光1, 贾明云1, 蒋佳峰1, 曾其龙1, 杨曙方2, 于金平1, 於虹1
所在单位1. 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园) 江苏省植物资源研究与利用重点实验室, 江苏 南京210014;2. 浙江蓝美技术股份有限公司, 浙江 绍兴 312000
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基金项目江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(20)3019〕; 江苏省属公益类科研院所自主科研项目(BM2018021-3)