2018年5月28日 星期一
塔里木盆地西南山区珍稀濒危植物的分布状况及保护策略
Distribution status and protection strategy of rare and endangered plants in southwest mountainous area of Tarim Basin
2018年 第27卷 第1期 页码[70-78]
摘要

采取线路调查法,对塔里木盆地西南山区珍稀濒危植物的种数、习性、分布特征及濒危状况进行了调查和分析。结果显示:该区域共有珍稀濒危植物67种,隶属31科40属,其中,蕨类植物1科1属1种,裸子植物2科2属13种,被子植物28科37属53种;被子植物中,双子叶植物有25科32属48种,单子叶植物有3科5属5种。景天科(Crassulaceae)的红景天属(Rhodiola Linn.)和麻黄科(Ephedraceae)的麻黄属(Ephedra Tourn ex Linn.)种类均较多(10种以上)。从习性看,多年生草本和灌木种类较丰富(分别为31和26种),乔木、寄生植物和一年生草本种类依次有7、2和1种。从垂直分布看,该区域珍稀濒危植物的海拔分布范围为1 500~5 600 m,种数随海拔升高呈先增后减的趋势;从水平分布看,以塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县和叶城县为中心向北或向东,珍稀濒危植物种类渐少;集中分布区为塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县和叶城县西南山区海拔2 000~4 500 m的中山带、亚高山带和高山带。在这些珍稀濒危植物中,属于濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)附录Ⅱ(2013版)收录的种类仅小斑叶兰〔Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br.〕1种;属于《中国植物红皮书》收录的种类有裸果木(Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim.)和胡杨(Populus euphratica Oliv.);属于《中国物种红色名录》收录的种类有46种,包括极危种2种、濒危种5种、易危种8种;属于国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批)收录的种类有裸果木和昆仑方枝柏(Sabina centrasiatica Kom.);属于新疆维吾尔自治区重点保护野生植物名录收录的种类有43种,其中,新疆Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级重点保护野生植物分别有31、10和2种。总体上看,塔里木盆地西南山区的珍稀濒危植物种类较为丰富,但由于生境和气候恶劣,加之部分种类的种群规模减小并具有间断分布的特点,这些种类面临较高的灭绝风险。根据研究结果,提出扩大自然保护区范围、增加保护强度、优先保护受威胁种类及注重孑遗种的科学研究等保护策略。

 

Abstract

Species number, habit, distribution characteristics, and endangered status of rare and endangered plants in southwest mountainous area of Tarim Basin were investigated and analyzed by using route investigation method. The results show that there are 67 species of rare and endangered plants belonging to 40 genera of 31 families in this area, in which, there are 1 species of pteridophytes belonging to 1 genus of 1 family, 13 species of gymnosperms belonging to 2 genera of 2 families, and 53 species of angiosperms belonging to 37 genera of 28 families. In angiosperms, there are 48 species of dicotyledons belonging to 32 genera of 25 families, and 5 species of monocotyledons belonging to 5 genera of 3 families. Species of Rhodiola Linn. in Crassulaceae and Ephedra Tourn ex Linn. in Ephedraceae are relatively abundant (more than 10 species). From the perspective of habit, species of perennial herbs and shrubs are relatively abundant (31 and 26 species, respectively), and those of arbors, parasitic plants and annual herbs are in turn by 7, 2, and 1 species. From the perspective of vertical distribution, rare and endangered plants in this area distribute in altitude range of 1 500-5 600 m, and species number shows a tendency to firstly increase and then decrease with raising of altitude; from the perspective of horizontal distribution, species of rare and endangered plants gradually decrease in north or east of Tajik Autonomous County of Taxkorgan and Yecheng County; their concentrated distribution areas are in the mid-mountain, subalpine, and alpine zones located in altitude range of 2 000-4 500 m of southwest mountainous area of Tajik Autonomous County of Taxkorgan and Yecheng County. Among these rare and endangered plants, only Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br. is recorded in Appendices Ⅱ of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (2013 edition); Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim. and Populus euphratica Oliv. are recorded in Chinese Plant Red Book; 46 species are recorded in Chinese Species Red List, which include 2 critical species, 5 endangered species, and 8 vulnerable species; G. przewalskii and Sabina centrasiatica Kom. are recorded in List of National Key Preserved Wild Plants (first batch); 43 species are recorded in List of Key Preserved Wild Plants in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in which, there are 31, 10, and 2 species belonging to Ⅰ class, Ⅱ class, and Ⅲ class of Xinjiang key preserved wild plants, respectively. Overall, rare and endangered plants in southwest mountainous area of Tarim Basin are relatively abundant, however, these species are facing relatively high risk of extinction because of bad habitat and climate, and decrease of population scale of some species with a disjunctive distribution trait. According to results of study, protection strategies are proposed including expanding natural reserve range, increasing protective strength, priority protection of threatened species, and emphasizing study of epibiotic species, etc.
 

关键词塔里木盆地西南山区; 珍稀濒危植物; 种类构成; 濒危状况; 保护策略
Key wordssouthwest mountainous area of Tarim Basin; rare and endangered plants; species composition; endangered status; protection strategy
作者姜洁a, 阎平a, 杨淑萍b, 徐文斌a, 刘鸯a, 黄刚a, 杜珍珠c
所在单位石河子大学: a. 生命科学学院, b. 师范学院, c. 分析测试中心, 新疆 石河子 832003
点击量57
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(39960008; 30760018; 31260047; 30360007)