2018年10月21日 星期日
不同配方土对上海市4种行道树叶片净光合速率和蒸腾速率的影响及矢量关系分析
Effects of different formula soils on leaf net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of four species of street trees in Shanghai City and vector relationship analysis
2018年 第27卷 第1期 页码[52-59]
摘要

以上海市4种代表性行道树广玉兰(Magnolia grandiflora Linn.)、香樟〔Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl〕、二球悬铃木〔Platanus acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.〕和银杏(Ginkgo biloba Linn.)的3年生扦插苗为研究对象,采用L16(43)正交试验设计进行3因子4水平栽培实验,其中,3因子包括填充介质、混合土体积分数和土壤相对含水量,填充介质分别为粒径5、3和1 cm的青石粒及街道土,混合土体积分数分别为20%、40%、60%和80%,土壤相对含水量分别为最大田间持水量的80%、60%、50%和40%;对4种行道树叶片的净光合速率和蒸腾速率进行了比较,并进行了多因素方差分析和矢量关系分析。结果表明:不含街道土的各组广玉兰和银杏的净光合速率较高,而含和不含街道土的各组香樟和二球悬铃木的净光合速率差异不明显;含街道土的各组香樟和二球悬铃木的蒸腾速率总体上较高,而含和不含街道土的各组广玉兰和银杏的蒸腾速率差异不明显。多因素方差分析结果表明:3个因子对香樟净光合速率的单独影响较小,而对其余3种行道树净光合速率的影响却较大;填充介质和土壤相对含水量对4种行道树蒸腾速率的单独影响均较大;而3个因子的交互作用对广玉兰净光合速率的影响极显著,对广玉兰、香樟和二球悬铃木蒸腾速率的影响也极显著。矢量关系分析结果表明:广玉兰属于高能耗水型,香樟属于高能耗水型和低能耗水型2个类型,二球悬铃木和银杏均属于高能保水型、高能耗水型和低能保水型3个类型。研究结果显示:从光合效能角度来看,广玉兰适宜生长在填充介质为粒径3 cm青石粒、混合土体积分数为40%、土壤相对含水量为最大田间持水量的80%的配方土中,二球悬铃木适宜生长在填充介质为粒径5 cm青石粒、混合土体积分数为40%、土壤相对含水量为最大田间持水量的60%的配方土中,而香樟和银杏则适宜生长在填充介质为粒径3 cm青石粒、混合土体积分数为20%、土壤相对含水量为最大田间持水量的60%的配方土中。

 

Abstract

Taking three-year-old cutting seedlings of four representative species of street trees of Magnolia grandiflora Linn., Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl, Platanus acerifolia (Ait.) Willd., and Ginkgo biloba Linn. in Shanghai City as research objects, cultivation experiments with three factors and four levels were set up by using L16(43) orthogonal test design. In which, three factors included packing medium, volume fraction of mixed soil, and relative water content of soil, packing medium was set as bluestone granules with diameter of 5, 3 and 1 cm, and street soil, respectively; volume fraction of mixed soil was set as 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, respectively; relative water content of soil was set as 80%, 60%, 50%, and 40% of the maximum field capacity, respectively. Leaf net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of four species of street trees were compared, and the multi-factor variance analysis and vector relationship analysis were also carried out. The results show that net photosynthetic rates of M. grandiflora and G. biloba in groups without street soil are higher, while differences in net photosynthetic rates of C. camphora and P. acerifolia between groups with and without street soil are not obvious. Transpiration rates of C. camphora and P. acerifolia in groups with street soil are mostly higher, while differences in transpiration rates of M. grandiflora and G. biloba between groups with and without street soil are not obvious. The results of multi-factor variance analysis show that the single effect of three factors on net photosynthetic rate of C. camphora is smaller, but that on net photosynthetic rate of other three species of street trees is larger; the single effects of packing medium and relative water content of soil on transpiration rate of four species of street trees are larger; while the interaction effect of three factors on net photosynthetic rate of M. grandiflora is extremely significant, and that on transpiration rate of M. grandiflora, C. camphora, and P. acerifolia is also extremely significant. The result of vector relationship analysis shows that M. grandiflora is belonging to high energy and water consumption type, C. camphora is belonging to two types including high energy and water consumption type and low energy and water consumption type, and P. acerifolia and G. biloba are belonging to three types including high energy and water conservation type, high energy and water consumption type, and low energy and water conservation type. It is suggested that from the perspective of photosynthetic efficiency, M. grandiflora is suitable for growing in formula soil containing packing medium of bluestone granules with diameter of 3 cm, volume fraction of mixed soil of 40%, and relative water content of soil with 80% of the maximum field capacity, P. acerifolia is suitable for growing in formula soil containing packing medium of bluestone granules with diameter of 5 cm, volume fraction of mixed soil of 40%, and relative water content of soil with 60% of the maximum field capacity, while C. camphora and G. biloba are suitable for growing in formula soil containing packing medium of bluestone granules with diameter of 3 cm, volume fraction of mixed soil of 20%, and relative water content of soil with 60% of the maximum field capacity.
 

关键词上海市; 行道树; 配方土; 净光合速率; 蒸腾速率; 矢量关系分析
Key wordsShanghai City; street tree; formula soil; net photosynthetic rate; transpiration rate; vector relationship analysis
作者杨瑞卿1,2
所在单位1. 上海市绿化管理指导站, 上海 200020; 2. 上海城市树木生态应用工程技术研究中心, 上海 200020
点击量173
基金项目上海市绿化和市容管理局科技攻关项目(G160507); 上海市科学技术委员会科技创新行动计划(17DZ2252000)