2024年6月19日 星期三
茶树功能性成分的遗传多样性分析及综合评价
Genetic diversity analysis and comprehensive evaluation on functional components of tea tree (Camellia sinensis)
2023年 第32卷 第5期 页码[28-38]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

对30个适制乌龙茶的茶树〔Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze.〕品种(品系)的14个功能性成分含量和遗传多样性进行分析,并根据筛选出的代表性评价指标对茶树材料进行综合评价。结果显示:30份茶树材料间各功能性成分含量的差异均达极显著水平,其中,‘天福星1号’(‘Tianfuxing 1’)的茶多酚、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)、可可碱和茶叶碱含量均最高。14个成分含量的变异系数为4.98%~79.96%,Shannon-Wiener指数平均值为1.90。通过相关性分析和主成分分析,筛选出EGCG、游离氨基酸、茶多酚、表没食子儿茶素(EGC)、没食子儿茶素(GC)和咖啡碱含量6个代表性评价指标。聚类分析和综合评价结果显示:在欧氏距离13.5处,30份茶树材料分为4类,各类具有不同的品质功能特点,Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类可作为选育高茶多酚、高EGCG茶树的亲本,Ⅲ类可作为选育高游离氨基酸茶树的亲本,Ⅳ类可作为选育低咖啡碱茶树的亲本。综合排名在第2至第7的材料集中分布在Ⅰ类,其中,‘金福星1号’(‘Jinfuxing 1’)的综合得分最高(3.88);Ⅱ类的‘天福星1号’综合得分最高(4.70);综合排名在第8至第29的材料集中分布在Ⅲ类,其中,‘肉桂’(‘Rougui’)的综合得分最高(1.39);Ⅳ类的‘毛蟹’(‘Maoxie’)综合得分最低(-2.79)。整体而言,综合得分从高至低依次为Ⅱ类、Ⅰ类、Ⅲ类、Ⅳ类,Ⅱ类和Ⅰ类茶树材料的综合功能性较好。综上所述,供试茶树材料功能性成分的遗传多样性和变异类型较丰富,具备选育功能优良茶树种质资源的潜力。‘天福星1号’、‘金福星1号’、‘水仙’(‘Shuixian’)、‘白牡丹’(‘Baimudan’)、‘桂福星1号’(‘Guifuxing 1’)、‘佛手’(‘Foshou’)和‘丹桂’(‘Dangui’)为综合功能性较好的种质资源。聚类分析结果和综合评价排序结果基本吻合,选取的6个指标可作为初步评价功能性茶树种质资源的指标。

Abstract

Contents of 14 functional components and genetic diversity of 30  tea tree 〔Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze.〕 cultivars (lines) for making oolong tea were analyzed, and  comprehensive evaluation was carried out by the selected repesentative evaluation indexes. The results show that there are extremely significant differences in content of each functional component among 30 tea tree materials, in which, contents of tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), theobromine, and theophylline of ‘Tianfuxing 1’ are all the highest. The coefficients of variation of contents of 14 components are 4.98%-79.96%, the average of ShannonWiener index is 1.90. Six representative evaluation indexes namely contents of EGCG, free amino acids, tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin content (EGC), gallocatechin content (GC), and caffeine are screened via correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The clustering analysis and comprehensive evaluation results show that at the Euclidean distance of 13.5, 30 tea tree materials can be divided into four categories, and each category has different quality functional characteristics,  category Ⅰ and category Ⅱ can be used as parents for breeding high tea polyphenols and high EGCG tea trees, category Ⅲ can be used as parents for breeding high free amino acid tea trees, and category Ⅳcan be used as parents for breeding low caffeine tea trees. The materials with comprehensive ranking from 2nd to 7th are mostly distributed in category Ⅰ, in which, the comprehensive score of ‘Jinfuxing 1’ is the highest (3.88); that of ‘Tianfuxing 1’ in category Ⅱ is the highest (4.70); the materials with comprehensive ranking from 8th to 29th are mostly distributed in category Ⅲ, in which, the comprehensive score of ‘Rougui’ is the highest (1.39); that of ‘Maoxie’ in category Ⅳ is the lowest (-2.79). In general, the comprehensive score from high to low in the order is category Ⅱ, category Ⅰ, category Ⅲ, category Ⅳ, the comprehensive functionality of tea tree materials in category Ⅱ and category Ⅰ are relatively good. In conclusion, the genetic diversity and variation types of functional components of test  tea tree materials are relatively abundant, which have the potential for breeding tea tree germplasm resources with good function. ‘Tianfuxing 1’, ‘Jinfuxing 1’, ‘Shuixian’, ‘Baimudan’, ‘Guifuxing 1’, ‘Foshou’, and ‘Dangui’ are germplasm resources with good comprehensive function. The clustering analysis result is basically consistent with the ranking result of comprehensive evaluation, and the six selected indexes can be used as indexes for preliminary evaluation of functional  tea tree germplasm resources.

关键词茶树; 乌龙茶; 功能性成分; 遗传多样性; 聚类分析; 综合评价
Key wordsCamellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze.; oolong tea; functional component; genetic diversity; clustering analysis; comprehensive evaluation
作者刘梦月1,2a, 孙悦2a,2b, 韦朝领3, 宋博2a,2b, 陈志丹2a,2b, 曹士先4, 孙威江2a,2b
所在单位1. 福建农林大学安溪茶学院, 福建 泉州 362400;2. 福建农林大学: a. 海峡两岸特色作物安全生产省部共建协同创新中心, b. 园艺学院, 福建 福州 350002;3. 安徽农业大学 茶树生物学与资源利用国家重点实验室, 安徽 合肥 230036; 4. 武夷星茶业有限公司, 福建 武夷山 354301
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基金项目国家重点研发计划专项(2019YFD1001601); 福建农林大学“双一流”建设科技创新能力提升培育计划项目(KSYLC005); 福建张天福茶叶发展基金会科技创新基金项目(FJZTF01)