2019年8月22日 星期四
不同分布区文冠果物候期的差异及其与地理-气候因子和结实性状的相关性
Differences in phenophases of Xanthoceras sorbifolium in different distribution areas and correlation of them with geographical-climatic factors and fruiting characters
2017年 第26卷 第2期 页码[27-34]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

为明确文冠果(Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge)物候期的地理变异规律,在文冠果的主要分布区(内蒙古自治区、河北省和河南省)选择6个样地,采用定株观测方法,于2012年对文冠果的物候期进行观测,并分析了物候期与经度和纬度、气候因子和结实性状间的相关性。结果表明:在供试6个样地中,文冠果的芽萌动期、初花期、盛花期、末花期、展叶期、果速生期、果熟期、落果期、落叶期及总生长期均存在明显差异;其中,盛花期相差天数最多(40 d),果速生期相差天数最少(26 d)。产自河南省三门峡市陕县(分布区南缘)的文冠果落叶期最晚,但其他各物候期均最早,总生长期最长(199 d);而产自内蒙古自治区赤峰市阿鲁科尔沁旗坤都镇(分布区北缘)的文冠果落叶期最早,但其他各物候期均最晚,总生长期最短(148 d)。从结实性状看,6个样地文冠果的座果率和单位投影面积种子质量差异均较大,而种子含油率差异不明显;其中,产自河南省三门峡市陕县的文冠果座果率和单位投影面积种子质量均最低。相关性和回归分析结果表明:文冠果的大多数物候期间呈正相关,仅落叶期与其他物候期呈负相关;其中,除盛花期与果速生期无显著相关性外,花期的各物候期(初花期、盛花期和末花期)与果期的各物候期(果速生期、果熟期和落果期)均呈显著或极显著正相关。多数物候期与经度和纬度呈显著或极显著正相关,仅落叶期与经度和纬度分别呈显著和极显著负相关。总体上看,除落叶期外,文冠果各物候期与年均日照时数呈正相关,与其他气候因子多数呈负相关;其中,除果速生期和落果期外,其他物候期与年均温呈显著或极显著负相关。此外,仅总生长期与文冠果的座果率呈显著负相关,其他物候期与结实性状则无显著相关性。综合分析结果表明:文冠果的物候期呈现明显的地理变异规律,且气温是影响其物候期的主要气候因子。

Abstract

In order to clarify the geographical variation rule of phenophases of Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge, six plots were selected in its main distribution areas (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hebei Province and He’nan Province), phenophases of X. sorbifolium were observed in 2012 by the method of fixed line observation, and the correlations of its phenophases with longitude and latitude, climatic factors and fruiting characters were evaluated. The results show that there are obvious differences in bud germination stage, early flowering stage, full flowering stage, late flowering stage, leaf-expansion stage, fruit fast-growing stage, fruit maturing stage, fruit dropping stage, deciduous stage and total growth period of X. sorbifolium among six plots tested. In which, difference in days is the most (40 d) during full flowering stage and that is the least (26 d) during fruit fast-growing stage. Deciduous stage of X. sorbifolium from Shanxian County in Sanmenxia City of He’nan Province (the southern edge of distribution area) is the latest, while other phenophases are all the earliest, and total growth period is the longest (199 d). However, deciduous stage of X. sorbifolium from Kundu Town of Alukeerqinqi in Chifeng City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (the northern edge of distribution area) is the earliest, while other phenophases are all the latest, and total growth period is the shortest (148 d). In the view of fruiting characters, the differences in fruit setting rate and seed weight per projected area of X. sorbifolium among six plots are greater, but the difference in seed oil content is not obvious. In which, both fruit setting rate and seed weight per projected area of X. sorbifolium from Shanxian County in Sanmenxia City of He’nan Province are the lowest. The results of correlation and regression analyses show that there are positive correlations among most phenophases of X. sorbifolium, only there is a negative correlation between deciduous stage and other phenophases. In which, except that there is no significant correlation between full flowering stage and fruit fast-growing stage, there are significantly or extremely significantly positive correlations between phenophases of flower period (early flowering stage, full flowering stage and late flowering stage) and phenophases of fruit period (fruit fast-growing stage, fruit maturing stage and fruit dropping stage). There are significantly or extremely significantly positive correlations of most phenophases with longitude and latitude, only there are significantly or extremely significantly negative correlations of deciduous stage with longitude and latitude, respectively. On the whole, except deciduous stage, there are positive correlations of phenophases of X. sorbifolium with annual average sunshine hour, and most negative correlations with other climatic factors. In which, except fruit fast-growing stage and fruit dropping stage, there are significantly or extremely significantly negative correlations between other phenophases and annual mean temperature. In addition, only there is a significantly negative correlation between total growth period and fruit setting rate, while there is no significant correlation between other phenophases and fruiting characters. The comprehensive analysis results show that there is an obvious geographical variation rule of phenophases of X. sorbifolium, and temperature is the main climatic factor affecting its phenophases.
 

关键词文冠果; 物候期; 结实性状; 地理-气候因子; 相关性分析; 回归分析
Key wordsXanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge; phenophase; fruiting characters; geographical-climatic factors; correlation analysis; regression analysis
作者敖妍1a,1b, 张宁1a, 赵磊磊2, 张永明2, 由海德2, 刘金凤3, 张行杰3
所在单位1. 北京林业大学: a. 林学院, b. 国家能源非粮生物质原料研发中心, 北京 100083; 2. 赤峰市翁牛特旗林业局, 内蒙古 赤峰 024500; 3. 胜利油田胜大生态林场, 山东 东营 257000
点击量375
基金项目国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31600241); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(2015ZCQ-LX-02)