2021年12月6日 星期一
对‘长富 2 号’苹果授粉后 11 个海棠品种花粉直感效应的综合评价
Comprehensive evaluation on pollen xenia effect of eleven cultivars of Malus spp. after pollinated to Malus pumila ‘Changfu 2’
2014年 第23卷 第4期 页码[83-89]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

以 11 个海棠(Malus spp.)品种的花粉为材料、‘新红星’苹果( Malus pumila ‘ Starkrimson’) 花粉为对照,对‘长富 2 号’苹果(M. pumila ‘Changfu 2’)进行人工授粉并测定其坐果率及 14 个果实品质指标;在此基础上,采用因子分析法确定影响苹果授粉后花粉直感效应评价的主要因子,并对供试海棠品种的花粉直感效应进行综合评价和排序。 结果表明:除海棠品种'雪<span style="color: black; font-family: 宋体; font-size: 10.5pt;" ar-sa;"="" zh-cn;="" en-us;="" roman";="" new="" "times="" times="" 1.0pt;="">倩’(‘Xueqian’)外,用其他海棠品种授粉后‘长富 2 号’苹果的坐果率均显著提高,其中用品种‘红波’(‘Hongbo’)授粉后‘长富 2 号’苹果的坐果率最高(达 86. 18% );经 11 个海棠品种授粉后‘长富 2 号’苹果的坐果率以及果实的果形指数、单果质量和可滴定酸含量均高于对照(用‘新红星’苹果授粉);经大部分海棠品种授粉后‘长富 2 号’苹果果实的果棱数、果梗存留率、梗洼深度、梗洼开裂率、VC含量和花青苷含量也均高于对照,但果实的着色面积百分率、果肉硬度、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量及糖酸比则低于对照。因子分析结果表明:前 7 个公因子的特征值均大于 1,累计方差贡献率达 88. 187% ,按照在授粉性能质量评价中的作用从大到小依次排序为果实甜度因子(包括可溶性固形物含量和可溶性糖含量)、果实酸度因子(包括可滴定酸含量和糖酸比)、果个与果形因子(包括单果质量、梗洼深度和果形指数)、果梗因子(包括梗洼开裂率和果梗存留率)、果肉硬度因子、保健与外形因子(包括花青苷含量、VC含量、果棱数和着色面积百分率)及坐果率因子。 综合评价结果表明:在供试的 11 个海棠品种中,仅品种 ‘ 红艳’ (‘ Hongyan’)、 ‘ 红亮’ (‘ Hongliang’) 和 ‘ 红纱’(‘Hongsha’)的花粉直感效应综合得分高于‘新红星’苹果,表明这 3 个海棠品种的花粉直感效应优良,可作为‘长富 2 号’苹果的授粉树。
 

Abstract

Taking pollen of eleven cultivars of Malus spp. as materials and pollen of Malus pumila ‘Starkrimson’ as the control, M. pumila ‘Changfu 2’ was pollinated artificially and its fruit setting rate and fourteen fruit quality indexes were measured. On this basis, main factors affecting pollen xenia effect of M. pumila pollinated were confirmed by factor analysis method, and pollen xenia effect of cultivars of Malus spp. tested was comprehensively evaluated and ordered. The results show that except cultivar ‘Xueqian’, fruit setting rate of M. pumila ‘ Changfu 2’ pollinated by other cultivars of Malus spp. increases significantly, in which, that pollinated by cultivar 'Hongbo’ is the highest with a percentage of 86. 18% . After pollinated by eleven cultivars of Malus spp., fruit setting rate, fruit shape index, weight per fruit and titratable acid content of M. pumila ‘ Changfu 2’ all are higher than those of the control (pollinated by M. pumila ‘Starkrimson’). After pollinated by most cultivars of Malus spp., number o fruit rib, retention rate of fruit rib, depth of stalk cavity, cracking rate of stalk cavity and contents of VC and anthocyanin of M. pumila ‘Changfu 2’ are also higher than those of the control, but fruit coloring area percentage, flesh firmness, soluble solid content, soluble sugar content and ratio of soluble sugar content to titratable acid content are lower than those of the control. The result of factor analysis shows that eigenvalue of the first seven common factors is higher than 1, their accumulative variance contribution rate is 88. 187% . According to function in evaluation of pollination quality, the order from big to small is fruit sweet factor ( including contents of soluble solid and soluble sugar), fruit acidity factor (including titratable acid content and ratio of soluble sugar content to titratable acid content ),fruit size and fruit shape factor (including weight per fruit, depth of stalk cavity and fruit shape index), fruit rib factor ( including cracking rate of stalk cavity and retention rate of fruit rib), flesh firmness factor, health and appearance factor (including anthocyanin content, VC content, number of fruit rib and percentage of coloring area) and fruit setting rate factor. The comprehensive evaluation result shows that among eleven cultivars of Malus spp. tested, comprehensive score of pollen xenia effect of only cultivars ‘Hongyan’, ‘Hongliang’ and ‘Hongsha’ is higher than that of M. pumila 'Starkrimson’, indicating that pollen xenia effect of these three cultivars of Malus spp. is excellent, and they can be used as pollinizer of M. pumila 'Changfu 2’.

关键词海棠; ‘长富 2 号’苹果; 花粉直感效应; 因子分析; 综合评价
Key wordsMalus spp.; Malus pumila ‘Changfu 2’; pollen xenia effect; factor analysis; comprehensive evaluation
作者王延秀, 陈佰鸿, 王淑华, 胡紫璟, 魏晓燕, 党兆霞
所在单位甘肃农业大学园艺学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070
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基金项目甘肃省高校科研基本业务费项目(035-041032); 甘肃省科技攻关项目(039-034049)