2021年12月9日 星期四
5 种甘草属植物花序和种子生产的位置效应及繁殖资源分配模式初步研究
Preliminary study on position effect of inflorescence and seed production, and reproductive resource allocation model of five species in Glycyrrhiza Linn.
2016年 第25卷 第3期 页码[72-79]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

以种植于新疆石河子的光果甘草(Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.)、胀果甘草( G. inflata Batal.)、乌拉尔甘草( G.uralensis Fisch.)、黄甘草(G. eurycarpa P. C. Li)和蜜腺甘草(G. glabra var. glandulosa X. Y. Li)为研究对象,对植株不同部位的花序数量、花序正常发育率、每花序单花数量和果穗干质量,以及植株不同部位和花序不同部位的生物量投入比、座果率、结籽率、种子投影面积和种子千粒质量进行测定;在此基础上,对供试 5 种甘草属( Glycyrrhiza Linn.)植物的繁殖资源分配模式和种子生产策略进行分析。 结果表明:同一植株内,光果甘草、乌拉尔甘草、黄甘草和蜜腺甘草的花序数量、花序正常发育率、每花序单花数量和果穗干质量从植株下部到上部总体上依次递减,而胀果甘草植株不同部位间这 4 项指标总体上无显著差异。同一植株内,胀果甘草植株中部的生物量投入比和座果率均较高,但其生物量投入比、座果率和结籽率在植株不同部位间均无显著差异;而供试另 4 种植物的生物量投入比、座果率和结籽率从植株下部到上部总体上依次递减。 同一花序内,胀果甘草花序中部的生物量投入比明显高于花序上部和下部,座果率从花序下部到上部依次递减,结籽率则在花序不同部位间无显著差异,而供试另 4 种植物的生物量投入比、座果率和结籽率从花序下部到上部总体上依次递减。 供试 5 种植物的种子投影面积和种子千粒质量在植株不同部位间和花序不同部位间均无显著差异。 综合研究结果显示:在资源竞争、结构效应和花粉限制的影响下,供试 5 种甘草属植物存在 2 种不同的资源分配模式和种子生产格局。其中,光果甘草、乌拉尔甘草、黄甘草和蜜腺甘草通过减少对晚发育的花或果实的资源投入来保障早发育的花或果实获得较多的资源,达到繁殖成功的目的;而胀果甘草则采取对花和果实随机败育的方式减小资源竞争的压力,这 2 种繁殖资源分配模式和种子生产策略对提高甘草属植物的繁殖成功率具有重要作用。

Abstract

Taking Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., G. inflata Batal., G. uralensis Fisch., G. eurycarpa P. C. Li and G. glabra var. glandulosa X. Y. Li planted in Shihezi of Xinjiang as researched objects, inflorescence number, inflorescence normal development rate, single-flower number per inflorescence and ear dry weight at different positions of plant body, and biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate, seed setting rate, seed projected area and 1 000-grain weight of seed at different positions of plant body and inflorescence were determined. On this basis, reproductive resource allocation model and seed production strategy of these five species in Glycyrrhiza Linn. tested were analyzed. The results show that within a plant body, inflorescence number, inflorescence normal development rate, single-flower number per inflorescence and ear dry weight of G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. eurycarpa and G. glabra var. glandulosa generally decrease successively from lower part to upper part of plant body, while there is no significant difference in these four indexes among different positions of plant body of G. inflata. Within a plant body, biomass investment rate and fruit setting rate at middle part of plant body of G. inflata are higher, but there is no significant difference in its biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate among different positions of plant body, while, biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate of other four species tested generally decrease successively from lower part to upper part of plant body. Within a inflorescence, biomass investment rate at middle part of inflorescence of G. inflata is higher than that at upper part and lower part of inflorescence, its fruit setting rate decreases successively from lower part to upper part of inflorescence, and there is no significant difference in its seed setting rate among different positions of inflorescence, while, biomass investment rate, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate of other four species tested generally decrease successively from lower part to upper part of inflorescence. There are no significant difference in seed projected area and 1 000-grain weight of seed among different positions of plant body and inflorescence of five species tested. The comprehensive research result shows that under the influences of resource competition, structure effect and pollen limitation, there are two different resource allocation models and seed production patterns of five species in Glycyrrhiza tested. In which, G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. eurycarpa and G. glabra var. glandulosa ensure early-development flower or fruit to earn more resources by reducing resources input in late-development flower or fruit and achieve the aim of successful reproduction, while G. inflata reduces resource competition pressure by measure of random abortion in flower and fruit. These two reproductive resource allocation models and seed production strategies have an important effect on enhancing success rate of reproduction of Glycyrrhiza species.

关键词甘草属植物; 花序发育; 繁殖资源分配; 种子生产; 位置效应
Key wordsGlycyrrhiza Linn.; inflorescence development; reproductive resource allocation; seed production; position effect
作者韩 春a, 陆嘉惠a,b,c,陈晓翠a, 牛清东a, 宋凤a, 陈超南a
所在单位石河子大学: a. 生命科学学院, b. 新疆生产建设兵团绿洲生态农业重点实验室, c. 甘草研究所, 新疆 石河子 832003
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基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31260042)