2021年10月27日 星期三
不同施肥处理对高丛越橘幼苗生长和生理指标及土壤理化性质的影响
Effects of different fertilization treatments on growth and physiological indexes of seedling of Vaccinium corymbosum and physicochemical properties of soil
2021年 第30卷 第2期 页码[28-34]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

 以不施肥为对照(CK),研究了施用化肥、有机肥和木霉生物有机肥对高丛越橘品种‘蓝美1号’(Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Lanmei 1’)幼苗生长和生理指标的影响及土壤的改良效应。结果显示:各施肥组幼苗的基径和根系活力以及单株的总枝长、总叶面积、地上部干质量和地下部干质量均大幅度高于对照,叶片的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和总叶绿素含量以及净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率和氮、磷、钾含量也均高于对照,而叶片的胞间CO2浓度则低于对照,差异均达显著(P<0.05)水平;各施肥组盆栽土壤的电导率、酸性磷酸酶和脲酶活性以及有机质、全氮、全磷、全钾、铵态氮和硝态氮含量均高于对照,差异均达显著水平,但盆栽土壤的pH值仅有机肥组与对照差异显著。3个施肥组中,幼苗单株的总枝长、总叶面积、地下部干质量和根系活力,叶片的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和总叶绿素含量以及净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率和氮、磷、钾含量均以木霉生物有机肥组最高;但幼苗的基径和单株地上部干质量以及胞间CO2浓度在各组间无显著差异。3个施肥组中,盆栽土壤的酸性磷酸酶和脲酶活性以及有机质、全氮、全钾和铵态氮含量均以木霉生物有机肥组最高;但盆栽土壤的电导率以及全磷和硝态氮含量在各组间无显著差异。综合分析结果显示:适量施用化肥、有机肥或木霉生物有机肥均能促进‘蓝美1号’幼苗生长,增大其叶面积,提高叶片叶绿素含量和净光合速率,增加根系活力,同时也能够提高土壤养分含量,增强土壤酶活性;其中,木霉生物有机肥对‘蓝美1号’的促生效果和土壤的改良作用更优。

Abstract

 Three different fertilizers of chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer and Trichodermaenriched bio-organic fertilizer were used to compare growth and physiological indexes of seedling of Vaccinum corymbosum ‘Lanmei 1’ and soil improvement effect by using no fertilizer as the control. The results show that the seedling of each fertilizer group presents significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control in following indexes, basal diameter and root activity, and total branch length, total leaf area, dry mass of above-ground part and dry mass of under-ground part per plant, contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, and net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of leaf, in contrast, intercellular CO2 concentration of leaf is lower than the control significantly. For soil improvement, the following indexes are significantly higher in each fertilizer group, electric conductivity, activities of acid phosphatase and urease, and contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, on the other hand, soil pH value only presents a significant difference between organic fertilizer group and the control. Within three fertilizer groups, the seedling of Trichoderma-enriched bio-organic fertilizer group shows the highest in following indexes, total branch length, total leaf area, dry mass of under-ground part per plant and root activity, contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, and net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, three indexes, basal diameter, dry mass of above-ground part per plant and intercellular CO2 concentration of seedling, present insignificant difference within groups. Within three fertilizer groups, the soil of Trichoderma-enriched bio-organic fertilizer group presents the highest in following indexes, activities of acid phosphatase and urease, and contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, total potassium and ammonium nitrogen. However, the results within groups are insignificant in soil electric conductivity, and contents of total phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen. According to results, three fertilizers can improve seedling growth of ‘Lanmei 1’ in leaf area, chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of leaf and root activity, meanwhile, fertilizers also improve soil nutrient content and soil enzyme activity. Comparing fertilizers in this study, Trichoderma-enriched bio-organic fertilizer performs advance on growth of ‘Lanmei 1’ and soil improvement than chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer.

关键词高丛越橘; 施肥措施; 木霉菌生物有机肥; 促生效应; 土壤改良效应
Key wordsVaccinum corymbosum ‘Lanmei 1’; fertilizer treatment; Trichoderma-enriched bio-organic fertilizer; promoting effect; soil improvement effect
作者邓家欣1, 韦继光1, 於虹1, 姜燕琴1, 曾其龙1, 刘红军2, 蒋佳峰1
所在单位1. 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014; 2. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 江苏 南京 210095
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基金项目江苏省农业科技自主创新资金〔CX(19)3031〕; 江苏省重点研发计划(现代农业)项目(BE2017373); 江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK20160597); 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所自主科研项目(JSPKLB202052)