2018年8月17日 星期五
上海市苏州河滨水带不同类型绿地和非绿地夏季小气候因子及人体热舒适度分析
Analyses on microclimatic factors and human thermal comfort of different types of greenbelt and nongreenbelt in riparian zone of Suzhou River in Shanghai City in summer
2018年 第27卷 第2期 页码[108-116]
摘要

对上海市苏州河西岸滨水带不同类型绿地(6个测点)和非绿地(4个测点)测点夏季空气温度、空气相对湿度、太阳辐射和风速4个主要小气候因子的差异进行了比较,并对各测点的人体热舒适度进行了主观和客观评价。结果表明:各测点的空气温度、空气相对湿度、太阳辐射和风速存在明显差异,平均值分别为34.1 ℃~37.9 ℃、38.2%~48.4%、138.5~506.7 W·m-2和0.0~1.7 km·h-1。人体热舒适度的主观评价结果表明受访者普遍认为各测点气温偏高、湿度大、太阳辐射一般、风速小,人体舒适度较差;客观评价结果表明各测点的预测平均投票(PMV)、生理等效温度(PET)和标准有效温度(SET*)分别为2.9~4.9、35.8 ℃~50.0 ℃和26.9 ℃~38.7 ℃。在绿地测点中,P3测点(非临水-灌草-半开敞空间)的空气温度平均值最低,P5测点(临水-乔灌草-半围合空间)的空气相对湿度平均值最低、但风速平均值最大,P2测点(临水-乔草-半开敞空间)的太阳辐射平均值及PMV、PET和SET*值均最低;在非绿地测点中,P10测点(临水-木制硬质铺装-开敞空间)的空气温度平均值、太阳辐射平均值及PMV、PET和SET*值均最低,P9测点(非临水-板石制硬质铺装-开敞空间)的空气相对湿度平均值最低,P4测点(临水-砖石制硬质铺装-开敞空间)的风速平均值最大。总体而言,与非绿地测点相比,绿地测点的空气温度、太阳辐射及PMV、PET和SET*值均较低,但风速较高。综上所述,受访者在绿地中的人体热舒适感觉优于非绿地,因此,建议在上海市苏州河滨水带规划设计中优先采用绿地形式,尤其是临水-乔草-半开敞空间和临水-乔灌草-半围合空间的绿地形式。

 

Abstract

Differences in four main microclimatic factors of air temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed at measuring points of different types of greenbelt (six measuring points) and non-greenbelt (four measuring points) in riparian zone of west bank of Suzhou River in Shanghai City in summer were analyzed, and subjective and objective evaluations of human thermal comfort of each measuring point were conducted. The results show that there are obvious differences in air temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed of each measuring point with the averages of 34.1 ℃-37.9 ℃, 38.2%-48.4%, 138.5-506.7 W·m-2, and 0.0-1.7 km·h-1, respectively. The result of subjective evaluation of human thermal comfort shows that interviewees generally believe that at each measuring point, air temperature is slightly high, humidity is high, solar radiation is general, wind speed is low, and human comfort is poor. The result of objective evaluation shows that predicted mean vote (PMV), physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and standard effective temperature (SET*) of each measuring point are 2.9-4.9, 35.8 ℃-50.0 ℃, and 26.9 ℃-38.7 ℃, respectively. Among greenbelt measuring points, the average of air temperature is the lowest at P3 measuring point (non by water-shrub-herb-semi-open space); the average of air relative humidity is the lowest at P5 measuring point (by water-arbor-shrub-herb-semi-enclosed space), while the average of its wind speed is the highest; the average of solar radiation, and PMV, PET and SET* values are all the lowest at P2 measuring point (by water-arbor-herb-semi-open space). Among non-greenbelt measuring points, the averages of air temperature and solar radiation, and PMV, PET and SET* values are all the lowest at P10 measuring point (by water-rigid pavement of wood-open space); the average of air relative humidity is the lowest at P9 measuring point (non by water-rigid pavement of slabstone-open space); while the average of wind speed is the highest at P4 measuring point (by water-rigid pavement of masonry-open space). In general, compared with non-greenbelt measuring point, air temperature, solar radiation, and PMV, PET and SET* values in greenbelt measuring point are all lower, but the average of its wind speed is higher. In conclusion, human thermal comfort of interviewees in greenbelt is superior to non-greenbelt, therefore, it is suggested that greenbelt mode should be preferred in planning and designing of riparian zone of Suzhou River in Shanghai City, especially the greenbelt modes of by water-arbor-herb-semi-open space and by water-arbor-shrub-herb-semi-enclosed space.
 

关键词滨水带; 绿地; 非绿地; 小气候因子; 人体热舒适度评价
Key wordsriparian zone; greenbelt; nongreenbelt; microclimatic factor; human thermal comfort evaluation
作者薛申亮, 刘滨谊
所在单位同济大学建筑与城市规划学院
点击量138
基金项目国家自然科学基金重点项目(51338007)