2018年6月18日 星期一
葡萄(Vitis spp.)果皮颜色及果实着色性状分析
Analyses on pericarp color and fruit coloring characters of grape (Vitis spp.)
2017年 第26卷 第4期 页码[8-17]
摘要

为了明确葡萄(Vitis spp.)果实的着色规律,对中国农业科学院郑州葡萄种质资源圃保存的302个葡萄品种(种)的果皮颜色及果实着色状况进行了调查分析,并对喷水处理后10个葡萄品种的果实着色状况以及75个葡萄品种果实转色期与成熟期的关系进行了研究。结果表明:在果实成熟期,葡萄的果皮颜色共有绿黄色、黄绿色、粉红色、紫红色、紫黑色和蓝紫色6种,其中,绿黄色和黄绿色为无色葡萄的果皮颜色,其余4种颜色为有色葡萄的果皮颜色;紫红色葡萄品种(种)数量最多,蓝紫色葡萄品种(种)数量最少。供试202个有色葡萄品种(种)果实的平均着色时间为18.7 d,其中,欧亚种(Vitis vinifera Linn.)果实的平均着色时间长于欧美杂种(V. vinifera×V. labrusca Linn.);56.9%的有色葡萄品种(种)果实在7月上旬开始着色,转色期果穗上的着色果粒数量变化呈“S”形曲线;早熟葡萄果实的平均着色时间最短(11.5 d),而中熟和晚熟葡萄果实的平均着色时间则相对较长(分别为18.7和21.0 d)。160个有色葡萄品种(种)的果穗着色方式包括穗肩先着色、穗尖先着色和穗中先着色3种,以穗肩先着色的品种(种)数量最多(72个);175个有色葡萄品种(种)的果粒着色方式包括粒尖先着色、中部先着色、顶部先着色和均匀着色4种,以粒尖先着色的品种(种)数量最多(116个)。喷水处理可以促进多数葡萄品种果实着色,但对少数葡萄品种果实着色无明显影响。91.1%的葡萄品种果实符合“早着色,早成熟;晚着色,晚成熟”的规律,但少数中熟和晚熟葡萄品种从果实开始着色到完全成熟经历的时间相对较长。分析结果显示:光照和温度是影响葡萄果实着色的主要环境因子。

Abstract

In order to explore fruit coloring rule of grape (Vitis spp.), pericarp color and fruit coloring status of 302 grape cultivars (species) preserved in Zhengzhou Grape Germplasm Resources Garden of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences were investigated and analyzed. In addition, fruit coloring status of 10 grape cultivars after water spraying treatment and the relationship between veraison and maturation stage of fruits of 75 grape cultivars were researched. The results show that there are six colors including greenish yellow, yellowish green, pink, purplish red, purplish black, and bluish violet of pericarp color of grape at fruit maturation stage, in which, greenish yellow and yellowish green are pericarp colors of colorless grape, other four colors are pericarp colors of colored grape. Number of purplish red grape cultivars (species) is the largest, and that of bluish violet grape cultivars (species) is the smallest. The average coloring time of fruit of 202 colored grape cultivars (species) tested is 18.7 d, in which, that of Vitis vinifera Linn. is longer than that of V. vinifera×V. labrusca Linn. Fruits of 569% colored grape cultivars (species) begin coloring in the first ten days of July, and the change of colored fruit grain number in ear at veraison appears the “S” curve. The average coloring time of fruit of earlymaturing grapes is the shortest (11.5 d), while that of medium- and late-maturing grapes is relatively long (18.7 and 21.0 d, respectively). There are three coloring modes of ear of 160 colored grape cultivars (species), including first coloring at shoulder of ear, first coloring at tip of ear, and first coloring at center of ear, and the number of cultivars (species) with first coloring at shoulder of ear is the largest (72). There are four coloring modes of fruit grain of 175 colored grape cultivars (species) including first coloring at tip, first coloring at center, first coloring at top, and uniform. coloring, and the number of cultivars (species) with first coloring at tip is the largest (116). Water spraying treatment can promote fruit coloring of most grape cultivars, but has no obvious effect on fruit coloring of a few grape cultivars. Fruits of 91.1% grape cultivars accord with the rule of “early coloring, early maturity; late coloring, late maturity”. However, the time from fruit beginning coloring to full maturity of a few medium- and late-maturing grape cultivars is relatively long. The analysis results show that light and temperature are the main environmental factors affecting grape fruit coloring.

关键词葡萄(Vitis spp.); 果皮颜色; 果实着色; 喷水实验
Key wordsgrape (Vitis spp.); pericarp color; fruit coloring; water spraying experiment
作者张培安1, 张文颖1, 纠松涛1, 张克坤1, 张超博1, 房经贵1, 刘崇怀2
所在单位1. 南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095; 2. 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所, 河南 郑州 450009
点击量356
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31672131); 江苏省研究生科研与实践创新计划项目(KYCX17-0604)