2021年12月9日 星期四
不同黑莓品种果实形态和硬度分析及其解剖结构和微形态特征观察
Analyses on morphology and firmness and observations on anatomical structure and micro-morphological characteristics of fruit of different cultivars of blackberry ( Rubus spp.)
2013年 第22卷 第3期 页码[88-94]    下载全文[4.5MB]  
摘要

以3 个黑莓(Rubus spp.)品种‘Arapaho’、‘Boysenberry’和‘Kiowa’的成熟果实为实验材料,对果实的形状指标以及硬度进行了测定,并采用石蜡切片技术和扫描电子显微镜分别对3 个品种果实的解剖结构以及外果皮及果肉的微形态特征进行了观察;在此基础上,对果实结构与果实硬度的关系进行了探讨。结果表明:品种‘Arapaho’果实的硬度值(0. 79 lb·mm-2 )大于品种‘Boysenberry’和‘Kiowa’果实的硬度值(0 lb·mm-2 );品种‘Arapaho’果实的纵径、横径和单果质量均极显著小于‘Boysenberry’和‘Kiowa’果实。石蜡切片观察结果显示:3 个品种的外果皮均较薄且无角质层覆盖,由1 ~2 层表皮细胞组成;其中,品种‘Arapaho’果实的表皮细胞1 层、短小且排列紧密,品种‘Boysenberry’果实的表皮细胞2 层、细长且排列疏松整齐,品种‘Kiowa’果实的表皮细胞2 层、胞壁有褶皱且果面局部凹陷。品种‘Arapaho’的中果皮由大量较完整的薄壁细胞组成并包含没有解体的维管束,而品种‘Boysenberry’和‘Kiowa’的中果皮内均匀分布着解体的薄壁细胞。扫描电镜观察结果显示:品种‘Boysenberry’外果皮具浅波状纹饰、表皮细胞形状不规则,并具稀疏的表皮毛和片状分泌物;品种‘Kiowa’外果皮表面有明显的不规则波纹状纹饰;品种‘Arapaho’外果皮表面纹理紧凑致密、表皮细胞轮廓清晰且形状规则。3 个品种的果肉细胞均呈现不同程度的解体现象,但品种‘Arapaho’的果肉细胞中分布有没有解体的胶状物质。根据观察结果推测:黑莓果实果皮和果肉的解剖结构以及微形态特征与其硬度有一定的关系。

Abstract

Taking mature fruits of three cultivars ‘Arapaho’, ‘Boysenberry’and ‘Kiowa’of blackberry ( Rubus spp.) as the experimental materials, morphological indexes and firmness of fruits were determined, and anatomical structure and micro-morphological characteristics of epicarp and pulp were observed by paraffin section and SEM techniques. And on these bases, relationship between fruit firmness and fruit structure was also discussed. The results show that fruit firmness value of cultivar ‘Arapaho’ (0. 79 lb·mm-2) is bigger than that of cultivars ‘Boysenberry’ and ‘Kiowa’(both 0 lb·mm-2). And fruit longitudinal and transverse diameters and weight per fruit of cultivar ‘Arapaho’are extremely significant less than those of cultivars ‘Boysenberry’and ‘Kiowa’. The observation result of paraffin section shows that epicarp of three cultivars is thinner and without cuticle covering, consists of 1-2 layers of epidermal cells. In which, epicarp of cultivar ‘Arapaho’consists of one layer of short and small epidermal cells arranged densely, that of cultivar ‘Boysenberry’consists of two layers of long and thin epidermal cells arranged orderly and loosely, and that of cultivar ‘Kiowa’consists of two layers of epidermal cells with fold cell wall and local cavity in fruit surface. Mesocarp of cultivar ‘Arapaho’ consists of a lot of relatively complete parenchyma cells and contains vascular bundles without disintegration, while, that of cultivars ‘ Boysenberry’and ‘ Kiowa’are uniformly distributed by disintegration parenchyma cells. The observation result of SEM show that epicarp of cultivar  ‘Boysenberry’ possesses sinuolate ornamentation, irregular epidermal cells, and sparse trichomes and lamellar exudates; that of cultivar ‘Kiowa’possesses obviously irregular sinuosity ornamentation, while that of cultivar ‘Arapaho’has compact and dense texture, and cell outline clear and shape regular of epidermal cells. Pulp cells of three cultivars disintegrates in different degrees, but there are large gelatinous substances without disintegrating in pulp cell of cultivar ‘ Arapaho’. According to these observation results, it is conjectured that there is a certain relationship between anatomical structure and micro-morphological characteristics of pericarp and pulp of blackberry fruit with its firmness.

关键词黑莓; 果实硬度; 果皮; 果肉; 解剖结构; 微形态特征
Key wordsblackberry (Rubus spp.); fruit firmness; pericarp; pulp; anatomical structure; micro-morphological characteristics
作者张春红, 汤飞云, 王小敏, 闾连飞, 吴文龙, 李维林
所在单位江苏省•中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏南京210014
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基金项目江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK2011686); 2010 年度江苏省“企业博士集聚计划”资金项目