2021年10月22日 星期五
中国兰科植物结实物候与主要气候因子关系初探
Preliminary study on relationship between fruiting phenology of Orchidaceae in China and major climatic factors
2021年 第30卷 第5期 页码[1-9]    下载全文[2.4MB]  
摘要

对1951年至2012年中国兰科(Orchidaceae)植物具果标本的时空分布、结实物候年变化以及结实物候与主要气候因子的关系进行分析。结果表明:供试兰科植物标本主要分布在东经100°~120°、北纬20°~30°区域,标本数量随海拔升高而减少。整体上看,兰科植物结实物候的年变化不显著,附生型和兼性附生型种类结实物候的年变化也不显著,但地生型种类结实物候的年变化却显著,每10年提前1.2 d。全部种类以及附生型和地生型种类的结实物候随当月平均气温、当月平均最低气温和当月平均最高气温升高而显著提前,但随当月降水量和当月平均空气相对湿度降低而显著推迟;而兼性附生型种类的结实物候随3个气温因子升高无明显变化,但随当月降水量和当月平均空气相对湿度降低分别显著推迟和显著提前。推测气温升高和降水量减少的双重作用导致兰科植物结实物候的年变化不显著。附生型种类的结实物候与当月降水量的拟合方程斜率的绝对值小于地生型种类,但与其他气候因子的拟合方程斜率的绝对值均大于地生型种类。研究结果显示:中国兰科植物的结实物候在1951年至2012年间整体上无明显变化,气温和水分条件是影响兰科植物结实物候的重要气候因子。地生型种类的结实物候对降水量变化更敏感,而附生型种类的结实物候对气温和空气相对湿度变化更敏感。

Abstract

 In present study, fruiting phenology of Orchidaceae in China was analyzed. The timespatial data was obtained from specimens with fruits during 1951-2012, the annual changes in fruiting phenology and the relationship between fruiting phenology and major climatic factors were analyzed. The data assemblage reveals that the test Orchidaceae specimens are mainly distributed in the areas of E100°-120° and N20°-30°, and specimen numbers are decreased with the increase of altitude. Overall, there is no significant annual variation of fruiting phenology of Orchidaceae, and is also no significant annual variation of fruiting phenology of epiphytic and facultative epiphytic species, but the annual variation of fruiting phenology of terrestrial species is significantly, with an advance of 1.2 d per 10 years. The fruiting phenology of all species and epiphytic and terrestrial species are significantly advanced with the increase of monthly mean temperature, monthly mean minimum temperature, and monthly mean maximum temperature, whereas are significantly delayed with the decrease of monthly precipitation and monthly mean relative air humidity. For facultative epiphytic species, there is no significant trend with the increase of three temperature factors, but is significantly delayed with the decrease of monthly precipitation and significantly advanced with the decrease of monthly mean relative air humidity. Based on the results, present study infers that no significant difference in fruiting phenology is due to conflict influence of temperature increasing and precipitation decreasing. For the absolute value of slope of fitting equation between fruiting phenology of epiphytic species and monthly precipitation is smaller than that of terrestrial species, but the absolute value of slope of fitting equation between fruiting phenology of epiphytic species and other climatic factors is larger than that of terrestrial species. Consequently, the fruiting phenology of Orchidaceae in China does not present an obvious annual trend during 1951-2012, the temperature and moisture conditions are major impact factors on fruiting phenology of Orchidaceae. Furthermore, fruiting phenology of terrestrial species is more related to precipitation, while epiphytic species is more related to temperature and relative air humidity.

关键词兰科植物; 结实物候; 气候因子; 标本
Key wordsOrchidaceae; fruiting phenology; climatic factor; specimen
作者张娜1a,2, 孙露1b, 张伟1a, 张石宝1a
所在单位1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所: a. 资源植物与生物技术重点实验室, b. 东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 云南 昆明650201;2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
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基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31970361)