2024年7月26日 星期五
不同种源酸枣表型多样性分析
Analysis on phenotypic diversity of Ziziphus jujuba from different provenances
2024年 第33卷 第2期 页码[58-70]    下载全文[1.1MB]  
摘要

以酸枣〔Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow.〕19个种源地的211份样本为研究对象,对其表型性状(包括13个质量性状和29个数量性状)进行观测和变异分析,并采用巢式方差分析、相关性分析、主成分分析研究数量性状的变异来源、与地理气候因子的关系及能够反映酸枣表型特征的主要数量性状。结果表明:酸枣质量性状的变异系数和Shannon-Weaver多样性指数分别为11.44%~55.21%和0.34~1.65;数量性状的变异系数和Shannon-Weaver多样性指数分别为4.57%~85.46%和0.24~2.09,极值比为1.67~14.06。陕西佳县、内蒙古元宝山和河北复兴种源的数量性状变异程度较高,辽宁喀左、陕西延川和河北赞皇种源的数量性状多样性丰富。酸枣数量性状种源间和种源内的方差分量比例均值分别为69.86%和14.88%,表型分化系数均值为0.82。叶长、叶形指数、可食率等12个数量性状与地理气候因子存在显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01)相关性。主成分分析结果表明:前9个主成分的累计贡献率为79.74%,叶形指数、叶柄长度、叶柄宽度等17个数量性状可作为评价酸枣种质资源的表型性状。基于数量性状可将19个种源分为4个类群,类群Ⅰ主要特征为叶片小、果实和果核小、出核率高;类群Ⅱ主要特征为果实和果核大、可食率高;类群Ⅲ主要特征为叶片长、枣吊长、枣吊叶片数多;类群Ⅳ主要特征为二次枝长、直刺和弯刺短。综合上述研究结果,酸枣表型多样性丰富,种源间和种源内存在不同程度的变异,种源间变异是主要变异来源,不同种源酸枣可用于选育不同表型性状酸枣品种。

 

Abstract

 Taking 211 samples from 19 provenances of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow. as research objects, the observation and variation analysis on their phenotypic traits (containing 13 qualitative traits and 29 quantitative traits) were conducted, and the sources of variations of quantitative traits, their relationships with geographical-climatic factors, and the main quantitative traits that can reflect the phenotypic characteristics of Z. jujuba var. spinosa were studied by using nested analysis, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis. The results show that the coefficients of variation and Shannon-Weaver diversity indexes of qualitative traits of Z. jujuba var. spinosa are 11.44%-55.21% and 0.34-1.65, respectively; those of quantitative traits are 4.57%-85.46% and 0.24-2.09, respectively, and the extremum ratios are 1.67-14.06. The variation degrees of quantitative traits of provenances from Jiaxian of Shaanxi, Yuanbaoshan of Inner Mongolia, and Fuxing of Hebei are relatively high, while the diversities of quantitative traits of provenances from Kazuo of Liaoning, Yanchuan of Shaanxi, and Zanhuang of Hebei are abundant. The means of percentage of variance component of quantitative traits of Z. jujuba var. spinosa among provenances and within provenance are 69.86% and 14.88%, respectively, and the mean of phenotypic differentiation coefficient is 0.82. Twelve quantitative traits including leaf length, leaf shape index, edible rate, etc. show significant (P<0.05) or extremely significant (P<0.01) correlations with geographical-climatic factors. The principal component analysis result shows that the cumulative contribution rate of the first nine principal components is 79.74%, and 17 quantitative traits including leaf shape index, petiole length, petiole width, etc. can be used as the phenotypic traits for evaluating Z. jujuba var. spinosa germplasm resources. Nineteen provenances can be divided into four groups based on quantitative traits, and the main characteristics of group Ⅰ are small leaves, small fruits and nutlets, and high nutlet rate; those of group Ⅱ are large fruits and nutlets, and high edible rate; those of group Ⅲ are long leaves, long bearing shoots, and a large number of bearing shoot leaves; those of group Ⅳ are long secondary branches, and short straight and bend thorns. Taken together, the phenotypic diversity of Z. jujuba var. spinosa is rich, there are different degrees of variations among provenances and within provenance, the variations among provenances are the main source of variations, and Z. jujuba var. spinosa from different provenances can be used for breeding Z. jujuba var. spinosa cultivars with different phenotypic traits.

 

关键词酸枣; 表型性状; 表型多样性; 地理气候因子
Key wordsZiziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow.; phenotypic trait; phenotypic diversity; geographical-climatic factor
作者曲凯伦1, 张云程2, 王海青2, 李彪1, 康莹1, 董胜君1
所在单位1. 沈阳农业大学林学院, 辽宁 沈阳 110866; 2. 喀左县林业和草原局, 辽宁 朝阳122300
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基金项目“十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1001200)