2024年2月25日 星期日
闽江福州河段江心洲异质土壤生境湿地植物群落的物种多样性特征
Species diversity characteristics of wetland plant communities in heterogeneous soil habitats of central bars in Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River
2023年 第32卷 第1期 页码[10-18]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

为了探究闽江福州河段江心洲湿地植物群落的物种多样性以及异质土壤生境对物种多样性的影响,本研究采用样方调查法对闽江福州河段5个江心洲的湿地植物进行调查。结果表明:闽江福州河段5个江心洲共有湿地植物130种,隶属于55科112属,其中,菊科(Asteraceae)和禾本科(Poaceae)为优势科,乡土种和外来入侵种分别有111和19种。闽江福州河段江心洲3种土壤生境湿地植物群落的物种组成存在明显差异,其中,洲中央沙质林地湿地植物种数远高于洲岸泥质滩涂和洲岸沙质滩涂,洲岸泥质滩涂与洲岸沙质滩涂的湿地植物种数基本持平。方差分析结果表明:总体上看,不同土壤生境的整体物种多样性指数存在显著差异。洲中央沙质林地的整体物种多样性指数显著高于洲岸沙质滩涂和洲岸泥质滩涂,而后二者的整体物种多样性指数较低且二者间差异不显著。在同一植物层次上,洲中央沙质林地乔木层、灌木层和草本层均能够维持较高的多样性水平;洲岸泥质滩涂乔木层能够维持较高的多样性水平,而灌木层和草本层多样性水平较低;洲岸沙质滩涂乔木层、灌木层和草本层的多样性均处于较低水平。枫杨(Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC.)为洲岸泥质滩涂的指示种,白花鬼针草(Bidens pilosa var. radiata Sch.Bip.)为洲中央沙质林地的指示种。土壤环境反映了闽江福州河段江心洲异质土壤生境湿地植物群落的结构特征及其物种多样性的明显差异,而人类活动的干扰是导致异质土壤生境外来入侵种数存在明显差异的重要影响因子。针对不同的土壤生境,建议建设生态驳岸,延长水陆交错带,优先修复洲岸沙质滩涂;顺应自然趋势,增加自然种植,修复洲岸泥质滩涂;退耕还林还草,减少人为干扰,修复洲中央沙质林地。

Abstract

To explore the species diversity of wetland plant communities and effects of heterogeneous soil habitats on species diversity in central bars of Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River, wetland plants in 5 central bars of Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River were investigated by using sampling survey method. The results show that there are 130 species of wetland plants belonging to 112 genera of 55 families in 5 central bars of Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River, in which, Asteraceae and Poaceae are the dominant families, and there are 111 native species and 19 alien invasive species. There are obvious differences in species composition of wetland plant communities in 3 soil habitats of central bars in Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River, in which, the numbers of wetland plant species in sandy forest land of central bar are greatly higher than those in mudflat of bank and sandy beach of bank, and the numbers of wetland plant species in mudflat of bank and sandy beach of bank are basically equal. The result of analysis of variance shows that there are significant differences in overall species diversity indexes among different soil habitats in general. The overall species diversity indexes of sandy forest land of central bar are significantly higher than those of sandy beach of bank and mudflat of bank, while those of the latter two are relatively low and there are no significantly differences between them. At the same plant level, arbor layer, shrub layer, and herb layer in sandy forest land of central bar can maintain relatively high diversity levels; arbor layer in mudflat of bank can maintain relatively high diversity levels, while its shrub layer and herb layer maintain low diversity levels; the diversity levels of arbor layer, shrub layer, and herb layer in sandy beach of bank are relatively low. Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. is the indicator species of mudflat of bank, and Bidens pilosa var. radiata Sch.-Bip. is the indicator species of sandy forest land of central bar. Soil environment reflects the structural characteristics of wetland plant communities and the obvious differences of species diversity in heterogeneous soil habitats of central bars in Fuzhou Reach of Minjiang River, while the disturbance of human activities is an important factor affecting the obvious difference of alien invasive species number in heterogeneous soil habitats. For different soil habitats, it is suggested to preferentially restore sandy beach of bank by building ecological revetments and extending the ecotone between water and land; restore mudflat of bank by following the natural trend and increasing natural planting; restore sandy forest land of central bar by returning farmland to forest and grassland and reducing human interference.

关键词闽江; 江心洲; 湿地植物; 物种多样性; 土壤生境
Key wordsMinjiang River; central bar; wetland plant; species diversity; soil habitat
作者李祖婵, 玄锦, 王秋雪, 彭书婷, 吴雅华, 黄柳菁
所在单位福建农林大学风景园林与艺术学院, 福建 福州 350002
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基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(32071578); 福建省自然科学基金项目(2021J01133); 福建农林大学学科交叉融合项目(YSYL-xkjc-8)