2019年10月17日 星期四
不同分布区文冠果的生长性状差异及其与地理-气候因子的相关性分析
Differences in growth characters of Xanthoceras sorbifolium from different distribution areas and analysis on its correlation with geographical-climatic factors
2019年 第28卷 第3期 页码[44-50]
摘要

 以内蒙古、河北和河南的7个文冠果(Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge)群体为研究对象,连续3 a对11个生长性状进行观测;在此基础上,采用相关性分析、通径分析和决策分析对其生长性状与地理-气候因子间的关系进行分析,并明确影响文冠果生长性状的主导因子。结果显示:供试7个文冠果群体间的生长性状存在极显著(P<0.01)差异,其中,地径的平均变异系数最大(46.44%),叶形指数和叶密度的平均变异系数最小(均为11.80%);而在群体内仅树高、地径、冠幅、第1轮活枝直径和叶面积存在极显著或显著(P<0.05)差异,其他生长性状均无显著差异,表明文冠果的各生长性状在群体间存在广泛变异,而在群体内则变异程度不一致,且不同群体间的地径和树高等生长性状不稳定,但与叶片相关的生长性状相对稳定。相关性分析结果表明:纬度、经度和海拔与树高、地径、冠幅、叶长、叶宽、叶面积和叶密度总体上呈显著或极显著负相关;年均温、≥10 ℃年积温、年日照时数和年降水量与树高、地径和冠幅等多数生长性状呈显著或极显著正相关,说明纬度、经度和海拔增加不利于其树高和地径等7个生长性状的增长,而气温、日照时数和降水量的适度增加有利于文冠果的生长。通径分析和决策分析结果表明:≥10 ℃年积温是所有生长性状的直接作用因子,并且是树高、枝下高、分枝角度和叶形指数的最主要决策因子;冠幅和叶密度、地径和叶长、叶宽和叶面积、第1轮活枝直径的最主要决策因子分别为经度、年日照时数、年降水量、无霜期。综合分析结果表明:文冠果的生长性状呈现明显的地理变异规律,且不同地理-气候因子对其生长性状的影响程度存在明显差异;在文冠果的引种栽培过程中应综合考虑多种环境因子对其生长性状的影响,以提高优良种源选择的准确度。

Abstract

 Taking 7 populations of Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge from Inner Mongolia, Hebei, and He,nan as research objects, 11 growth characters were observed consecutively for 3 a; on the basis, the relationships between growth characters and geographical-climatic factors were analyzed by using correlation, path, and decision analyses, and the major factors impacting growth characters of X. sorbifolium were clarified. The results show that there are extremely significant (P<0.01) differences in growth characters among 7 populations of X. sorbifolium tested, in which, the average coefficient of variation of ground diameter is the largest (46.44%), while that of leaf shape index and leaf density is the smallest (both are 11.80%); there are extremely significant or significant (P<0.05) differences in tree height, ground diameter, crown width, diameter of the first round of living branch, and leaf area within population, but no significant difference in other growth characters, indicating that there are universal variations in each growth character of X. sorbifolium among populations, while the variation degree is inconsistent within population, and growth characters including ground diameter and tree height, etc. are not stable among different populations, but leafassociated growth characters are relatively stable. The correlation analysis result shows that latitude, longitude, and altitude show significant or extremely significant negative correlations with tree height, ground diameter, crown width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, and leaf density in general; annual mean temperature, ≥10 ℃ annual accumulated temperature, annual sunshine hours, and annual precipitation all show significant or extremely significant positive correlations with most growth characters including tree height, ground diameter, and crown width, etc., indicating that the increase of latitude, longitude, and altitude is not good for the increase of 7 growth characters including tree height and ground diameter, etc., while proper increase of temperature, sunshine hours, and precipitation is beneficial for the growth of X. sorbifolium. Path and decision analyses results show that ≥10 ℃ annual accumulated temperature is the direct action factor of all growth characters, and is the major decision factor of tree height, clear bole height, branch angle, and leaf shape index; the major decision factors of crown width and leaf density, ground diameter and leaf length, leaf width and leaf area, and diameter of the first round of living branch are longitude, annual sunshine hours, annual precipitation, and frostless period, respectively. The comprehensive analysis result shows that the growth characters of X. sorbifolium show evident geographical variation law, and there are obvious differences in influence degree of different geographical-climatic factors on the growth characters; effects of multiple environmental factors on the growth characters should be comprehensively considered in introduction and cultivation process of X. sorbifolium to increase the accuracy of superior provenance selection.

关键词文冠果; 生长性状; 地理-气候因子; 相关性; 直接通径系数; 决策系数
Key wordsXanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge; growth characters; geographical-climatic factors; correlation; direct path coefficient; decision coefficient
作者张毅1a,1b, 敖妍1a,1b, 刘觉非2, 赵磊磊3, 张永明3
所在单位1. 北京林业大学: a. 省部共建森林培育与保护教育部重点实验室, b. 国家能源非粮生物质原料研发中心, 北京 100083; 2. 赤峰市林业种苗站, 内蒙古 赤峰 024000; 3. 赤峰市翁牛特旗林业局, 内蒙古 赤峰 024500
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基金项目国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31600241); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2015ZCQ-LX-02)