2021年12月9日 星期四
生物炭基肥与平茬措施对喀斯特土壤养分含量及刺槐幼苗热能的影响
Effects of biochar based fertilizer and stumping measure on karst soil nutrient content and heat energy of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings
2019年 第28卷 第2期 页码[71-78]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

以喀斯特山地石灰土为基础栽培基质,以1年生刺槐(Robinia pseudoacacia Linn.)幼苗为实验对象,采用室外盆栽法研究了生物炭基肥(分别添加不同量的稻壳炭、木炭以及堆肥和化肥)和平茬措施(平茬高度分别为10、15和20 cm)对土壤养分含量及刺槐枝、叶的灰分含量、干质量和热能相关指标的影响。结果表明:施用生物炭基肥可显著增加土壤中有机质和速效养分含量,其中,各施肥处理组的土壤有机质含量均较对照组提高13.49%~103.97%,速效氮、速效磷和速效钾含量也不同程度提高,以4%稻壳炭-堆肥-化肥和4%木炭-堆肥-化肥2个处理组的土壤有机质以及速效磷和速效钾含量的增幅较大;但平茬措施对土壤有机质和速效养分含量无显著影响。生物炭基肥和平茬措施对刺槐枝、叶的灰分含量、干质量和热能相关指标具有不同的影响效应。各施肥处理组的叶灰分含量显著低于对照组,枝灰分含量与对照组无显著差异,而枝、叶的干质量、干质量热值、去灰分热值和热量以及总干质量和总热量总体高于对照组;其中,施用4%稻壳炭-堆肥-化肥后,枝、叶的干质量、干质量热值、去灰分热值和热量以及总干质量和总热量均最高,较对照组分别提高28.41%、21.36%、22.94%、21.82%、23.01%、19.80%、54.52%、46.74%、24.84%和50.21%。采取不同平茬措施后,枝灰分含量及枝、叶的干质量热值和去灰分热值以及总热量无显著变化,但其他指标有显著差异。相关性分析结果表明:除土壤速效氮含量与幼苗总干质量、叶干质量热值与枝干质量热值和枝去灰分热值以及叶去灰分热值与枝干质量热值和枝去灰分热值的相关性不显著外,其他指标间均呈显著或极显著正相关。综合分析结果表明:施用生物炭基肥对土壤养分指标及刺槐热能相关指标有显著效应,平茬措施仅对刺槐枝、叶热量有显著效应,二者的交互作用仅对刺槐叶灰分含量、枝热量和总热量有显著效应。施用含4%稻壳炭的生物炭基肥并采取高度10 cm的平茬措施,可作为喀斯特石漠化山地刺槐能源林的适宜栽培措施之一。

Abstract

Taking lime soil from karst mountain area as basic cultivation medium and one-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. as research object, effects of biochar based fertilizer (adding different amounts of rice husk biochar, wood biochar, and compost and chemical fertilizer, respectively) and stumping measure (stumping height at 10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively) on soil nutrient content and ash content, dry mass and heat energy related indexes of branch and leaf of R. pseudoacacia were studied by using outdoor pot method. The results show that application of biochar based fertilizer can significantly increase contents of organic matter and available nutrient in soil, in which, organic matter content in soil of each fertilization treatment group increases by 13.49%-103.97% compared with that of the control group, and contents of available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium also increase at different degrees, while increments of contents of organic matter, available phosphorus and available potassium in soil of two treatment groups of 4% rice husk biochar-compost-chemical fertilizer and 4% wood biochar-compost-chemical fertilizer are relatively large; however, stumping measure has no significant effect on contents of organic matter and available nutrient in soil. Biochar based fertilizer and stumping measure have different effects on ash content, dry mass and heat energy related indexes of branch and leaf of R. pseudoacacia. Ash content in leaf of each fertilization treatment group is significantly lower than that of the control group, and that in branch has no significant difference with that of the control group, while dry mass, dry mass calorific value, ash free calorific value and heat of branch and leaf, and total dry mass and total heat are generally higher than those of the control group; in which, dry mass, dry mass calorific value, ash free calorific value and heat of branch and leaf, and total dry mass and total heat are all the highest after application of 4% rice husk biochar-compost-chemical fertilizer, which increase by 28.41%, 21.36%, 22.94%, 21.82%, 23.01%, 19.80%, 54.52%, 46.74%, 24.84% and 50.21%, respectively compared with those of the control group. There is no significant change in ash content in branch and dry mass calorific value and ash free calorific value of branch and leaf, and total heat after different stumping measures, but there are significant differences in other indexes. The correlation analysis result shows that except that correlations of content of available nitrogen in soil with total dry mass of seedling, dry mass calorific value of leaf with dry mass calorific value of branch and ash free calorific value of branch, and ash free calorific value of leaf with dry mass calorific value of branch and ash free calorific value of branch are not significant, there are significant or extremely significant positive correlations among other indexes. The comprehensive analysis result shows that application of biochar based fertilizer has a significant effect on soil nutrient indexes and heat energy related indexes of R. pseudoacacia, while stumping measure only has a significant effect on heat of branch and leaf of R. pseudoacacia, and their interaction only has a significant effect on ash content in leaf, heat of branch and total heat of R. pseudoacacia. Application of biochar based fertilizer containing 4% rice husk biochar and taking measure of stumping height at 10 cm can be used as one of suitable cultivation measures for energy forest of R. pseudoacacia in karst rocky desertification mountainous area.

关键词刺槐; 喀斯特土壤; 生物炭基肥; 平茬措施; 土壤养分; 热能
Key wordsRobinia pseudoacacia Linn.; karst soil; biochar based fertilizer; stumping measure; soil nutrient; heat energy
作者时正伦a,b, 郭雅倩a,b, 周之栋a,b, 朱倩a,b, 薛建辉a,b, 吴永波a,b
所在单位南京林业大学: a. 生物与环境学院, b. 南方现代林业协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210037
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基金项目国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFC0502605); “十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD07B0404); 江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)