2018年9月23日 星期日
花序开放程度、栽培温度和贮藏条件对菊花品种‘钟山金阳’花粉萌发的影响
Effects of inflorescence opening degree, cultivating temperature and storage condition on pollen germination of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’
2018年 第27卷 第3期 页码[56-64]
摘要

采用离体培养法和杂交实验法,以菊花品种‘钟山金阳’(Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’)为实验材料,比较了不同的花序开放程度(花序开放天数和散粉阶段)、栽培温度和贮藏条件对其花粉萌发的影响。离体培养结果表明:在花序开放的第2至第7天花粉萌发率为22.6%~17.3%,第9天为7.7%,第11天仅为2.8%;在散粉的第1阶段(第1和第2轮管状花散粉)和第2阶段(第3和第4轮管状花散粉)花粉萌发率分别为19.5%和17.8%,第3阶段(全部管状花散粉)花粉萌发率仅为9.4%,表明随花序的开放和散粉阶段的延续,花粉萌发率均呈逐渐降低的趋势。在昼/夜温度5 ℃/0 ℃、10 ℃/5 ℃、15 ℃/10 ℃、20 ℃/15 ℃、25 ℃/20 ℃和30 ℃/25 ℃条件下栽培一定时间,其花粉萌发率和花粉管长度均有明显差异;其中,10 ℃/5 ℃栽培组培养4.0 h的花粉萌发率最高(23.0%),而30 ℃/25 ℃栽培组培养0.5 h的花粉萌发率最低(1.2%);15 ℃/10 ℃和20 ℃/15 ℃栽培组培养4.0 h的花粉管长度较长(分别为144.4和146.1 μm),而30 ℃/25 ℃栽培组培养0.5 h的花粉管长度最短(38.3 μm)。在不同贮藏温度下〔4 ℃、-20 ℃和室温(约25 ℃)〕,新鲜和干燥花粉的萌发率均随贮藏时间的延长逐渐下降,但降幅存在明显差异;其中,新鲜花粉贮藏12 d后花粉萌发率从21.4%降至5.0%以下,干燥花粉贮藏26 d后花粉萌发率降至5.0%以下;总体上看,干燥花粉的萌发率和贮藏时间均高于新鲜花粉,以-20 ℃条件下贮藏的干燥花粉萌发率最高且可贮藏至50 d以内。杂交实验结果显示:用不同栽培温度下的品种‘钟山金阳’的花粉对品种‘钟山粉碟’(‘Zhongshanfendie’)进行人工授粉,在柱头上花粉萌发数差异明显;其中,10 ℃/5 ℃栽培组的花粉萌发数最多(55.5),30 ℃/25 ℃栽培组的花粉萌发数最少(8.8),且二者间差异显著(P<0.05)。综合分析结果表明:花序开放天数、散粉阶段、栽培温度及贮藏条件对菊花品种‘钟山金阳’的花粉萌发率均有明显影响。根据研究结果,建议菊花品种‘钟山金阳’花粉的最佳采集时期为花序开放的7 d内且为第1至第4轮管状花散粉阶段,栽培温度应维持在10 ℃左右,而且采集的花粉应置于-20 ℃干燥条件下贮藏。

Abstract

Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’ as experimental material, the effects of different inflorescence opening degrees (inflorescence opening days and dispersal stages), cultivating temperatures, and storage conditions on its pollen germination were compared by using in vitro culture and hybridization experiment methods. The results of in vitro culture show that pollen germination rate of inflorescence opening from the second to the seventh day is 22.6%-17.3%, that of the ninth day is 7.7%, and that of the eleventh day is only 2.8%. Pollen germination rates in the first dispersal stage (the first and the second rounds of tubular flower dispersal) and the second dispersal stage (the third and the fourth rounds of tubular flower dispersal) are 19.5% and 17.8%, respectively, that of the third dispersal stage (all tubular flower dispersal) is only 9.4%, indicating that pollen germination rate shows a tendency of gradually decreasing with extending of inflorescence opening and dispersal stage. There are obvious differences in pollen germination rate and pollen tube length under cultivating for a certain time at day/night temperatures of 5 ℃/0 ℃, 10 ℃/5 ℃, 15 ℃/10 ℃, 20 ℃/15 ℃, 25 ℃/20 ℃ and 30 ℃/25 ℃. In which, pollen germination rate of 10 ℃/5 ℃ cultivation group cultured for 4.0 h is the highest (23.0%), while that of 30 ℃/25 ℃ cultivation group cultured for 0.5 h is the lowest (1.2%). Pollen tube lengths of 15 ℃/10 ℃ and 20 ℃/15 ℃ cultivation groups cultured for 4.0 h are longer (1444 and 1461 μm, respectively), while that of 30 ℃/25 ℃ cultivation group cultured for 0.5 h is the shortest (383 μm). At different storage temperatures 〔4 ℃, -20 ℃ and room temperature (about 25 ℃)〕, germination rates of fresh and dry pollens decrease gradually with prolonging of storage time, but there is an obvious difference in decreasing amplitude. In which, pollen germination rate of fresh pollen after storage for 12 d decreases from 21.4% to below 5.0%, that of dry pollen after storage for 26 d falls to below 5.0%. On the whole, germination rate and storage time of dry pollen are higher than those of fresh pollen, and germination rate of dry pollen stored at -20 ℃ is the highest and can be stored within 50 d. The results of hybridization experiment show that cultivar ‘Zhongshanfendie’ is pollinated artificially with pollen of cultivar ‘Zhongshanjinyang’ at different cultivating temperatures, the difference in germination number of pollens on stigma is obvious; in which, germination number of pollens of 10 ℃/5 ℃ cultivation group is the most (55.5), and that of 30 ℃/25 ℃ cultivation group is the least (8.8), and the difference between them is significant (P<0.05). The results of comprehensive analysis show that pollen germination rate of C. morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’ is obviously affected by inflorescence opening day, dispersal stage, cultivating temperature, and storage condition. According to results of this study, it is suggested that the best collection period of pollen of C. morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’ is within 7 d of inflorescence opening and the first to the fourth rounds dispersal stage of tubular flower, cultivating temperature should be maintained at about 10 ℃, and collected pollen should be stored at -20 ℃ dry condition.
 

关键词菊花品种‘钟山金阳’; 散粉阶段; 栽培温度; 贮藏条件; 花粉萌发率
Key wordsChrysanthemum morifolium ‘Zhongshanjinyang’; dispersal stage; cultivating temperature; storage condition; pollen germination rate
作者蔡依凡, 滕年军, 蒋甲福, 陈发棣, 管志勇, 陈素梅, 房伟民
所在单位南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095
点击量55
基金项目上海市种业发展项目〔沪农科种字(2016)第1-14号〕; 江苏省农业三新工程(SXGC[2017]002)