2024年2月22日 星期四
东太湖水生植被及其沼泽化趋势
Succession of hydrophytic vegetation and swampy tendency in the East Taihu Lake
1999年 第8卷 第2期 页码[1-6]    下载全文[0.7MB]  
摘要

1996 年东太湖水生植被调查结果表明, 沉水植被挺水植被及浮叶植被面积分别为 73 .845.5 6 .7 km2 9 个群丛, 其中微齿眼子菜 ( Potamogeton maackianus) 群丛( Zizaniala tifolia) 群 丛伊 乐 藻-微 齿 眼 子 菜 ( Elodea nuttalli-Potamogeton maackianus ) 群 丛 和 芦 苇( Phragmites communis) 群丛分布面积较大, 分别占东太湖总面积的 39.39 %、28.27%、11.20%6.40%。 1960 年相比, 水生植被变化极为明显, 突出表现为环湖水陆交错带的芦苇群丛严重退化和消失, 菰群丛发展迅速并向湖心蔓延占据了东太湖总面积的 28.27%;微齿眼子菜取代了竹叶眼子菜( Potamogeton malaianus) 黑藻( Hydrilla verticillata) 及苦草( Vallisneria natans) , 成为沉水植被的优势种, 占据了东太湖整个湖心区;外来种伊乐藻( Elodea nuttalli) 侵入, 并形成一定规模的群丛综观该湖区水生植被演化过程, 可知东太湖已经出现沼泽化趋势, 应引起足够重视
 

Abstract

The hydrophytic vegetation of the East Taihu Lake was investigated in 1996 .The results showed that the distribution areas of submerged, emerging and leaf-floating vegetation were 73 .8, 45 .5 and 6 .7 km2, respectively .The main associations included Potamogeton maackianus, Zizania latifolia, Elodea nuttalli-Potamogeton maackianus and Phragmites communis .Their distribution areas constituted 39 .39 %, 28 .27 %, 11 .20 %and 6 .40 %of total area of the East Taihu Lake. Comparing with the investigation in the lake in 1960, the variation of hydrophy tic vegetation was significant in the last 40 years .The most remarkable variation was that the Phragmites com munis association in the ecotone of land and w ater declined or even disappeared. The Zizania latifolia association developed from shore to center and occupied 28 .27 % of the total area of the lake.Potamogeton maackianus became dominant of submerged plants instead of  Potamogeton malaianus, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans .The exotic species, Elodea nuttalli, invaded and formed association in a large scale.The succession of hy drophytic vegetation indicates that a sw ampy tendency has appeared in the East Taihu Lake .
 

关键词水生植被; 分布; 群落演替; 沼泽化
Key wordshydrophytic vegetation; distribution; community succession; sw ampy
作者张圣照 ,王国祥 ,濮培民 ,千金良·达哉
所在单位中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
日本国际航业株式会社日本技术所, 东京 102
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基金项目中国科学院基础研究特别支持项目