2023年12月5日 星期二
陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物的地理成分和分布特征
Geographical components and distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province
2023年 第32卷 第5期 页码[62-69]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

根据2021年公布的《国家重点保护野生植物名录》及2022年公布的《陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物名录》,统计分析陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物物种组成、分布区类型以及水平和垂直分布特征。结果表明:陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物共有103种(含亚种、变种,下同),隶属于38科66属,其中,国家一级重点保护野生植物5科6属8种,国家二级重点保护野生植物37科63属95种。在科水平,兰科(Orchidaceae)种类最多,有26种;在属水平,杓兰属(Cypripedium Linn.)和重楼属(Paris Linn.)种类较多,分别有9和7种。此外,中国特有种68种,占陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物总种数的66.0%,其中,陕西特有种5种。陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物在科水平有6个分布型和5个变型,在属水平有12个分布型和8个变型。从分布区类型看,陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物中温带成分占优势,在科和属水平分别占23.6%和39.4%;热带成分次之,在科和属水平分别占21.1%和22.7%。从水平分布特征来看,秦岭和巴山地区分布的国家重点保护野生植物占绝对优势,且多数为药用植物资源,其中,秦岭地区最多(75种),巴山地区次之(70种)。从垂直分布特征来看,中山林带〔1 200 m≤海拔(Alt)≤2 300 m〕分布的国家重点保护野生植物种数最多(74种),低山林带(Alt<1 200 m)次之(54种),亚高山草甸(Alt>2 300 m)最少(28种)。研究结果显示:陕西省分布的国家重点保护野生植物具有明显的温带和热带特征,并且特有成分比例较高,这些植物主要分布在秦岭和巴山地区的中高海拔。
 

Abstract

The species composition, areal-type, and horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province were statistically analyzed according to The List of National Key Protected Wild Plants in China published in 2021 and The List of National Key Protected Wild Plants in Shaanxi Province published in 2022. The results show that there are 103 species (containing subspecies and vatiety, the same below) of national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province in total, belonging to 66 genera of 38 families, in which, 8 species belonging to 6 genera of 5 families are national first-class key protected wild plants, and 95 species belonging to 63 genera of 37 families are national second-class key protected wild plants. At the family level, Orchidaceae has the most species, which is 26 species; at the genus level, Cypripedium Linn. and Paris Linn. have more species, which are 9 and 7 species respectively. In addition, there are 68 species of Chinese endemic species, accounting for 66.0% of the total species number of national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province, in which, 5 species are Shaanxi endemic species. There are 6 areal-types and 5 sub-types of national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province at the family level, and 12 areal-types and 8 sub-types at the genus level. In terms of areal-types, temperate component is dominant in national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province, which accounts for 23.6% and 39.4% at the family and genus levels respectively; tropical component comes second, which accounts for 21.1% and 22.7% at the family and genus levels respectively. In terms of horizontal distribution characteristics, the national key protected wild plants distributed in Qinling Mountains and Bashan Mountains are absolutely dominant, and most of them are medicinal plant resources, in which, Qinling Mountains has the most species (75 species), and Bashan Mountains comes second (70 species). In terms of vertical distribution characteristics, the species of national key protected wild plants distributed in mid-mountain forest belt 〔1 200 m≤altitude (Alt)≤2 300 m〕 are the most (74 species), followed by low mountain forest belt (Alt<1 200 m) (54 species), and those distributed in subalpine meadow (Alt>2 300 m) are the least (28 species). It is suggested that the national key protected wild plants distributed in Shaanxi Province have evident temperate and tropical characteristics and relatively high proportion of endemic components, and these plants are mainly distributed at middle and high altitudes of Qinling Mountains and Bashan Mountains.
 

关键词陕西省; 国家重点保护野生植物; 分布区类型; 水平分布; 垂直分布
Key wordsShaanxi Province; national key protected wild plant; areal-type; horizontal distribution; vertical distribution
作者李亚利, 高龙, 康晓育, 魏宁, 杨柯, 陈迪
所在单位秦岭国家植物园, 陕西 西安 710061
点击量267
下载次数220
基金项目陕西林业科技创新重点专项(SXLK2022-02-18); 陕西省重点研发计划项目(2023-YBNY-013)