2024年6月17日 星期一
不同修剪措施对薄壳山核桃枝条生长及枝条和叶片碳氮代谢物积累的影响
Effect of different pruning measures on branch growth and carbon-nitrogen metabolite accumulation in branch and leaf of Carya illinoensis
2014年 第23卷 第3期 页码[86-93]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

以薄壳山核桃品种‘马罕’(Carya illinoensis ‘Mahan’)的 5 年生嫁接苗为实验材料,研究枝条短截(1 / 4、1 / 3和 1 / 2 短截)以及枝条和主干的环剥和环割对其枝条生长及枝条和叶片中碳氮代谢物积累的影响。 结果显示:经不同程度短截处理后,枝条萌芽率均显著高于对照(未经任何修剪),新枝的数量、长度和直径也均不同程度高于对照,而比叶质量及叶绿素含量总体上与对照无显著差异;经 1 / 2 和 1 / 3 短截处理后,长度 0 ~ 10 cm 和 30 cm 以上的新枝比例明显提高;枝条和叶片中可溶性糖含量和 C / N 比均高于对照、全 N 含量均低于对照,枝条中淀粉含量低于对照而叶片中淀粉含量高于对照。 经枝条环剥和环割处理后,枝条萌芽率和比叶质量均高于对照但无显著差异,枝条平均长度增长量和叶绿素含量均显著低于对照、枝条平均直径增长量均显著高于对照;枝条和叶片中可溶性糖和淀粉含量以及 C / N 比均高于对照,全 N 含量均低于对照。 经主干环剥和环割处理后,枝条的萌芽率和平均直径增长量以及比叶质量均显著高于对照,枝条平均长度增长量和叶绿素含量均显著低于对照;枝条和叶片中可溶性糖和淀粉含量以及 C / N 比均高于对照,枝条中全 N 含量高于对照而叶片中全 N 含量则低于对照。 此外,品种‘马罕’的结果枝长度为 0 ~ 30 cm,其中长度 0 ~ 10 cm 的结果枝数量最多。 研究结果表明:不同短截措施均能提高薄壳山核桃的萌芽率、促进新枝伸长和增粗;而枝条和主干的环剥和环割处理对枝条萌芽率无明显促进作用,但有利于枝条增粗;不同修剪措施总体上有利于其叶片及枝条中碳水化合物的合成和积累。 总体上,1 / 3 短截及枝条和主干的适度环剥可促进品种‘马罕’结果枝的形成。

Abstract

Taking 5-year-old grafted seedling of Carya illinoensis ‘ Mahan’ as experimental materials, effects of short-cutting (1 / 4, 1 / 3 and 1 / 2 short-cuttings), girdling and ringing of branch and trunk on branch growth and carbon-nitrogen metabolite accumulation in branch and leaf were researched. The results show that after short-cutting treatment with different degrees, sprouting rate of branch is significantly higher than that of the control ( no pruning), number, length and diameter of new branch are higher than those of the control with different degrees, while there is generally no significant difference in specific leaf weight and chlorophyll content between short-cutting treatment and the control. After 1 / 2 and 1 / 3 short-cuttings, proportion of new branch with length of 0 - 10 cm and over 30 cm obviously increases, soluble sugar content and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher and total N content is lower than those of the control, and starch content in branch is lower and that in leaf is higher than that of the control. After girdling and ringing treatments of branch, sprouting rate of branch and specific leaf weight are higher than those of the control with no significant difference, average length increment of branch and chlorophyll content are significantly lower and average diameter increment of branch is significantly higher than those of the control, soluble sugar and starch contents and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher and total N content is lower than those of the control. After girdling and ringing treatments of trunk, sprouting rate and average diameter increment of branch and specific leaf weight are significantly higher while average length increment of branch and chlorophyll content are significantly lower than those of the control, soluble sugar and starch contents and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher than those of the control, and total N content in branch is higher while that in leaf is lower than that of the control. Moreover, length of fruiting branch of cultivar ‘ Mahan’ is 0 - 30 cm, in which number of fruiting branch with length of 0-10 cm is the most. It is suggested that different short-cutting measures all can enhance sprouting rate, promote new branch elongation and its diameter increasing, while girdling and ringing treatments of branch and trunk have no obvious promotion effect on branch sprouting rate but are benefit to its diameter increasing. Different short-cutting measures are generally benefit to synthesis and accumulation of carbohydrate in branch and leaf. In general, 1 / 3 short-cutting and proper girdling of branch and trunk can promote fruiting branch formation of cultivar ‘Mahan’.

 

关键词薄壳山核桃; 修剪措施; 萌芽率; 结果枝生长; 比叶质量; 碳氮代谢物积累
Key wordsCarya illinoensis ( Wangenheim ) K. Koch; pruning measure; sprouting rate; fruiting branch growth; specific leaf weight; carbon-nitrogen metabolite accumulation
作者张翔1, 翟敏2, 徐迎春1, 李永荣2
所在单位1. 南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095; 2. 南京绿宙薄壳山核桃科技有限公司, 江苏 南京 210007
点击量1173
下载次数781
基金项目中央财政林业科技推广示范资金项目([2012]TK28)