2018年12月16日 星期日
大理地区白族传统食用酸味植物的民族植物学研究
Ethnobotanical study on traditional edible sour plants of Bai nationality in Dali area
2018年 第27卷 第2期 页码[93-100]
摘要

采用文献研究法、村社访谈法、参与式观察法及民族植物学定量评价法,对大理地区白族传统食用酸味植物进行了调查和研究。调查结果显示:大理地区白族传统食用酸味植物共22种(变种),隶属于9科18属,其中蔷薇科(Rosaceae)种类最多,为12种。以果实(含幼果)为食用部位的酸味植物种类最多(16种),以茎叶(含嫩茎、嫩叶和茎)为食用部位的酸味植物种类也较多(4种)。以生食(16种)和腌制(11种)为食用方法的酸味植物种类较多。食用类别包括调料、零食、食疗、水果、饮料和蔬菜,其中,作为调料、零食、食疗和水果食用的酸味植物种类较多,分别有11、10、9和9种。该地区酸味植物共具有16种功能,其中,具开胃、消食、解暑、治痢疾和祛风湿等功能的酸味植物种类较多。定量评价结果显示:毛叶木瓜(Chaenomeles cathayensis Schneid.)、皱皮木瓜〔Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai〕、长梗梅〔Armeniaca mume var. cernua (Franch.) Yü et Lu〕、梅(Armeniaca mume var. mume Sieb.)、高河菜(Megacarpaea delavayi var. delavayi Franch.)、余甘子(Phyllanthus emblica Linn.)和云南杨梅(Myrica nana Cheval.)的食用植物文化重要性指数(CFSI)较高,说明其在当地的利用价值较高。综合分析结果显示:大理地区白族传统食用酸味植物的种类、食用部位、食用类别、食用方法和功能方面具有多样性,传统利用知识丰富。此外,从自然环境、人文环境和食疗功能方面分析了大理地区白族喜食酸味植物及其制品的原因,并提出了促进大理地区白族特色植物资源的发掘和利用的建议。

 

Abstract

Traditional edible sour plants of Bai nationality in Dali area were investigated and studied by using the methods of literature research, village interview, participant observation, and ethnobotanical quantitative evaluation. The investigation results show that there are 22 species (varieties) of traditional edible sour plants belonging to 18 genera in 9 families of Bai nationality in Dali area, in which, species in Rosaceae are the most (12 species). Sour plant species using fruit (including young fruit) as edible parts are the most (16 species), and those using stem and leaf (including tender stem, tender leaf, and stem) as edible parts are also more (4 species). Sour plant species using raw eating (16 species) and sousing (11 species) as edible methods are the majority. The edible categories include condiment, snack, food therapy, fruit, beverage, and vegetable, in which, sour plants species used as condiment, snack, food therapy, and fruit are the majority, accounting for 11, 10, 9, and 9 species, respectively. There are 16 functions of sour plants in this area, in which, sour plant species with functions of appetizing, promoting digestion, expelling summer heat, treating dysentery, and removing rheumatism are the majority. The quantitative evaluation result shows that cultural food significance index (CFSI) of Chaenomeles cathayensis Schneid., Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai, Armeniaca mume var. cernua (Franch.) Yü et Lu, Armeniaca mume var. mume Sieb., Megacarpaea delavayi var. delavayi Franch., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Myrica nana Cheval. are relatively high, indicating their high local utilization value. The comprehensive analysis result shows that there are diversities in species, edible part, edible category, edible method, and function of traditional edible sour plants of Bai nationality in Dali area, and traditional utilization knowledge are rich. In addition, the reasons for Bai nationality in Dali area preferring sour plants and their products are analyzed from the perspectives of natural environment, humanistic environment, and food therapy functions, and recommendations are proposed to promote the exploration and utilization of special plant resources of Bai nationality in Dali area.
 

关键词大理; 白族; 酸味植物; 民族植物学; 食用植物文化重要性指数(CFSI)
Key wordsDali; Bai nationality; sour plant; ethnobotany; cultural food significance index (CFSI)
作者杨念婷1,2, 张宇1,3, 和丽姬1, 范汝艳1,2, 苟祎1,2, 王趁1, 王雨华1
所在单位1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所 资源植物与生物技术重点实验室, 云南 昆明 650201; 2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3. 中国科学院东南亚生物多样性研究中心, 内比都 999091
点击量283
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31270379); 科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2012FY110300)