2024年7月21日 星期日
34个蓝莓品种果实品质评价
Evaluation on fruit quality of 34 Vaccinium spp. cultivars
2023年 第32卷 第4期 页码[44-53]    下载全文[1.7MB]  
摘要

以南京地区种植的34个蓝莓(Vaccinium spp.)品种为研究材料,对各品种果实的表型性状、营养成分和感官评定指标进行分析,并采用主成分分析和系统聚类的方法对34个蓝莓品种进行分类和综合评价。结果显示:从表型性状来看,‘钱德勒’(‘Chandler’)果实横径(19.51 mm)和单果质量(3.40 g)最大,‘灿烂’(‘Brightwell’)果实纵径(14.76 mm)最大,‘梯芙蓝’(‘Tifblue’)果实硬度(3.79 kg·cm-2)最高;从营养成分来看,‘粉蓝’(‘Powderblue’)果实的可溶性固形物含量(15.90%)和固酸比(54.74)最高,‘园蓝’(‘Gardenblue’)果实的总花色苷含量(2.49 mg·g-1)和总多酚含量(3.49 mg·g-1)最高;从感官评定来看,‘灿烂’和‘杰兔’(‘Premier’)果实的外观评分(8.4)最高,‘玉蓝’(‘Magnolia’)果实的香味评分(7.3)最高,‘安娜’(‘Anna’)果实的甜度评分(7.2)最高、酸度评分(2.8)最低,‘蓝雨’(‘Bluerain’)和‘玉蓝’果实的口感评分(7.5)最高。主成分分析结果显示:前5个主成分的累计贡献率为83.989%,‘钱德勒’的综合得分(3.564)最高。聚类分析结果显示34个蓝莓品种可分为5组:Ⅰ组仅包含‘钱德勒’,其果实大、感官评分高、营养成分含量整体较低;Ⅱ组包含‘南方之星’(‘Star’)等11个品种,其果实较大、营养成分含量整体较高、感官评分也较高;Ⅲ组和Ⅳ组各包含8和5个品种,各指标均处于中等水平;Ⅴ组包含‘园蓝’等9个品种,其果实小且较圆,外观评分最低。综合分析认为,果实品质较优的品种为‘钱德勒’、‘南方之星’、‘灿烂’、‘巨蓝’(‘Prolific’)、‘玉蓝’、‘杰兔’和‘粉蓝’,推荐用于鲜食,而总花色苷含量和总多酚含量最高的品种‘园蓝’可用于蓝莓产品加工。

Abstract

Taking 34 Vaccinium spp. cultivars planted in Nanjing area as research materials, indexes of phenotypic traits, nutritional components and sensory evaluation of fruits of each cultivar were analyzed, and classification and comprehensive evaluation were conducted for 34 Vaccinium spp. cultivars by using principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster methods. The results show that in terms of phenotypic traits, the transverse diameter (19.51 mm), and single fruit mass (3.40 g) of fruits of ‘Chandler’ are the largest, the vertical diameter (14.76 mm) of fruits of ‘Brightwell’ is the largest, and the hardness (3.79 kg·cm-2) of fruits of ‘Tifblue’ is the highest; in terms of nutritional components, the soluble solid content (15.90%) and solid-acid ratio (54.74) of fruits of ‘Powderblue’ are the highest, and the total anthocyanins content (2.49 mg·g-1) and total polyphenols content (3.49 mg·g-1) of fruits of ‘Gardenblue’ are the highest; in terms of sensory evaluation, the appearance scores (8.4) of fruits of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Premier’ are the highest, the fragrance score (7.3) of fruits of ‘Magnolia’ is the highest, the sweetness score (7.2) and acidity score (2.8) of fruits of ‘Anna’ are the highest and the lowest, respectively, and the taste scores (7.5) of fruits of ‘Bluerain’ and ‘Magnolia’ are the highest. The principal component analysis result shows that the cumulative contribution rate of the first five principal component is 83.989%, the comprehensive score (3.564) of ‘Chandler’ is the highest. The cluster analysis result shows that 34 Vaccinium spp. cultivars can be divided into five groups: group Ⅰ only contains ‘Chandler’, which has big fruits, high sensory score, and generally low contents of nutritional components; group Ⅱ contains 11 cultivars including ‘Star’, etc., which have relatively big fruits, generally high contents of nutritional components, and relatively high sensory scores; group Ⅲ and group Ⅳ contain 8 and 5 cultivars, respectively, and each index is at a middle level; group Ⅴ contains 9 cultivars including ‘Gardenblue’, etc., which have small and round fruits and the lowest appearance score. Taken together, the cultivars with relatively good fruit quality are ‘Chandler’, ‘Star’, ‘Brightwell’, ‘Prolific’, ‘Magnolia’, ‘Premier’, and ‘Powderblue’, which are recommended for fresh consumption, while the cultivar ‘Gardenblue’, which has the highest total anthocyanins content and total polyphenols content, can be used for blueberry product processing.

关键词蓝莓; 果实品质; 感官评定; 主成分分析; 聚类分析
Key wordsVaccinium spp.; fruit quality; sensory evaluation; principal component analysis; cluster analysis
作者赵慧芳1, 吴文龙1, 黄正金1, 赵俸艺1, 闾连飞1, 李维林2
所在单位1. 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园) 江苏省植物资源研究与利用重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210014; 2. 南京林业大学林学院 南方现代林业协同创新中心, 江苏 南京210037
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基金项目江苏省种业振兴揭榜挂帅项目(JBGS[2021]021); 江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(22)2014〕