2021年12月8日 星期三
枇杷不同器官及栽植土壤中矿质元素含量变化及其相关性分析
Changes of mineral element contents in different organs and cultivating soil of Eriobotrya japonica and their correlation analysis
2020年 第29卷 第1期 页码[8-17]    下载全文[7.7MB]  
摘要

以枇杷品种‘白玉’(Eriobotrya japonica ‘Baiyu’)为研究对象,对不同发育期的不同器官(叶片、花和果实)和栽植土壤中矿质元素含量及其变化规律进行研究,并分析了栽植土壤与不同器官间以及不同器官间矿质元素含量的相关性。结果表明:随枇杷的生长发育,除叶片Mg含量逐渐下降外,栽植土壤及不同器官中N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量均波动变化,但波动幅度和规律性各异。土壤中N、P、K、Ca、Mg和Fe含量变幅较小,而Mn、Cu和Zn含量变幅较大。叶片中大量元素N、P、K、Ca和Mg含量变幅较小,而微量元素Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量变幅较大;花期叶片中大量元素含量总体上高于果期,但微量元素含量总体上低于果期,盛花期叶片中Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量均最低。未成熟果实中大量元素以及微量元素Fe和Mn含量总体上高于花,但在成熟果实中所有元素含量均大幅降低并在果实成熟期最低。相关性分析结果表明:土壤与叶片、花和果实中各元素含量以及叶片与花和果实中各元素含量间呈现不同程度的相关性。总体上看,土壤中Mn和Zn含量对叶片中矿质元素含量有较大影响,土壤中P、K、Mg、Fe、Mn和Zn含量对花中矿质元素含量有较大影响,土壤中N、Mg、Fe、Mn、Cu和Zn含量对果实中矿质元素含量有较大影响;叶片中N、Mn、Cu和Zn含量对花中矿质元素含量有较大影响,叶片中P、Ca和Zn含量对果实中矿质元素含量有较大影响。此外,叶片、花和果实中大多数矿质元素含量变化与土壤中相应元素含量变化无显著相关性;花和果实中大多数矿质元素含量变化与叶片中相应元素含量变化也无显著相关性。综合分析结果表明:随花和果实的生长发育,枇杷不同器官及栽植土壤中矿质元素含量呈现不同的变化规律,其相关性也发生了变化。依据研究结果,建议在实际生产过程中,可在花芽分化期(8月下旬)至盛花期(12月上旬)以及幼果期(2月中旬)至果实成熟期(5月中旬)合理追施速效肥和矿质肥。

Abstract

Taking Eriobotrya japonica ‘Baiyu’ as research object, mineral element contents and their variation laws in different organs (leaf, flower, and fruit) and cultivating soil at different developmental stages were studied, and the correlations of mineral element contents between cultivating soil and different organs, and among different organs were analyzed. The results show that with the growth and development of E. japonica, except for gradual decrease of Mg content in leaf, contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in cultivating soil and different organs fluctuate, but their fluctuation ranges and laws are different. The variation ranges of contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe in soil are relatively small, while those of Mn, Cu, and Zn are relatively big. The variation ranges of contents of major element N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in leaf are relatively small, while those of trace element Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn are relatively big; contents of major elements in leaf at flowering stage are generally higher than those at fruit stage, but contents of trace elements are generally lower than those at fruit stage, and contents of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in leaf are all the lowest at full flowering stage. Contents of major elements and trace element Fe and Mn in immature fruit are generally higher than those in flower, but contents of all elements in mature fruit all decrease dramatically and are the lowest at fruit ripened stage. The correlation analysis results show that there are correlations at different degrees of each element content between soil and leaf, flower, and fruit, and between leaf and flower and fruit. Overall, contents of Mn and Zn in soil have a relatively big influence on mineral element contents in leaf, those of P, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in soil do in flower, and those of N, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in soil do in fruit; those of N, Mn, Cu, and Zn in leaf do in flower, and those of P, Ca, and Zn in leaf do in fruit. In addition, content variations of most mineral elements in leaf, flower, and fruit have no significant correlation with those of corresponding elements in soil; those of most mineral elements in flower and fruit have no significant correlation with those of corresponding elements in leaf. The comprehensive analysis results show that with the growth and development of flower and fruit, mineral element contents in different organs and cultivating soil of E. japonica show different variation laws, and their correlations have also changed. Based on the results, it is suggested that fast released fertilizer and mineral fertilizer should be applied reasonably from flower bud differentiation stage (late August) to full flowering stage (early December) and from young fruit stage (mid February) to fruit ripened stage (mid May) during the practical production process.

关键词枇杷; 栽植土壤; 器官; 矿质元素; 动态变化; 相关性
Key wordsEriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.; cultivating soil; organ; mineral element; dynamic change; correlation
作者黄霄1, 王化坤2, 薛松1, 罗文杰1, 高志红1
所在单位1. 南京农业大学园艺学院, 江苏 南京 210095; 2. 江苏省太湖常绿果树技术推广中心, 江苏 苏州 215107
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基金项目江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(16)1014〕