2024年7月26日 星期五
不同种源麻竹表型多样性及其与环境因子的相关性
Phenotypic diversity of Dendrocalamus latiflorus from different provenances and its correlations with environmental factors
2023年 第32卷 第5期 页码[39-50]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

以来自福建省、四川省、重庆市、云南省、广西壮族自治区、广东省、贵州省、浙江省和江西省的20个麻竹(Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro)种源为研究对象,采用Duncans多重比较、巢式方差分析、相关性分析和聚类分析等方法,研究不同种源麻竹表型多样性及其与环境因子的关系。结果表明:四川富顺种源的株高、胸径和分枝角度最大,云南绥江种源的最长节间长、总节数和胸高处节间长最大,贵州望谟种源的枝下节数、枝下高和丛内株数最大,浙江苍南种源的分枝数最大,广东仁化种源的最长枝长和冠幅最大,广西兴宁种源的叶长、叶宽和叶面积最大,浙江苍南种源的叶厚最大,四川东坡种源的叶长宽比最大;除叶厚外,其余16个表型性状在种源内和种源间均存在极显著差异,麻竹表型存在较为丰富的变异。麻竹各表型性状的变异系数均值在13.64%~67.91%之间,其中,枝下高的变异系数均值最大,最长节间长的变异系数均值最小;不同种源麻竹表型性状的变异系数均值在14.21%~43.93%之间,其中,云南陇川种源的变异系数均值最大,广东仁化种源的变异系数均值最小。麻竹种源内变异(方差分量百分比均值为44.48%)大于种源间变异(方差分量百分比均值为37.25%),表型分化系数均值为41.61%,其中,株高、丛内株数和冠幅的表型分化系数较高,分别为77.47%、76.63%和71.98%。聚类分析结果显示:在欧氏距离6.8处,20个种源可分为3类,即云贵川渝地区一类(包括9个种源)、东南沿海地区一类(包括9个种源)和粤桂地区一类(包括2个种源)。相关性分析结果显示:麻竹多数表型性状与经度、纬度、年均温、年均降水量、极端最高温和年均日照时数呈显著或极显著相关。综上所述,不同种源麻竹表型多样性丰富,种源内变异是麻竹表型变异的主要来源;不同种源麻竹并没有严格依据地理位置聚类,麻竹表型性状变异存在片段性和不连续性。麻竹表型性状与环境因子间的相关性揭示了麻竹东西分布较广、南北分布狭窄的原因。

Abstract

Taking 20 Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro provenances from Fujian Province, Sichuan Municipality, Chongqing Municipality, Yunnan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong Province, Guizhou Province, Zhejiang Province, and Jiangxi Province as research objects, the phenotypic diversity of D. latiflorus from different provenances and its relationship with environmental factors were investigated by using Duncan's multiple comparisons, nested variance analysis, correlation analysis, and cluster analysis, etc. The results show that height, diameter at breast height, and branching angle of provenance from Fushun of Sichuan are the largest, the longest internode length, total number of nodes, and internode length at breast height of provenance from Suijiang of Yunnan are the largest, number of nodes under branch, height under branch, and number of plants in the cluster of provenance from Wangmo of Guizhou are the largest, number of branches of provenance from Cangnan of Zhejiang is the largest, the longest branch length and crown diameter of provenance from Renhua of Guangdong are the largest, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf area of provenance from Xingning of Guangxi are the largest, leaf thickness of provenance from Cangnan of Zhejiang is the largest, and ratio of leaf length to leaf width of provenance from Dongpo of Sichuan is the largest; except for leaf thickness, there are extremely significant differences in the other 16 phenotypic traits both within and among provenances, and there are relatively abundant variations in phenotypes of D. latiflorus. The average of coefficient of variation of each phenotypic trait of D. latiflorus is within the range of 13.64%-67.91%, in which, the average of coefficient of variation of height under branch is the largest, that of the longest internode length is the smallest; the average of coefficients of variation of phenotypic traits among D. latiflorus from different provenances are within the range of 14.21%-43.93%, in which, the average of coefficient of variation of provenance from Longchuan of Yunnan is the largest, and that of provenance from Renhua of Guangdong is the smallest. The variation within provenance of D. latiflorus (the average of percentage of variance component is 44.48%) is greater than that among provenances (the average of percentage of variance component is 37.25%), and the average of phenotypic differentiation coefficients is 41.61%, in which, the phenotypic differentiation coefficients of height, number of plants in the cluster, and crown diameter are relatively high, which are 77.47%, 76.63%, and 71.98% respectively. The cluster analysis result shows that at Euclidean distance of 6.8, 20 provenances can be divided into three groups namely Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Chongqing region group(containing 9 provenances), southeast coast region group(containing 9 provenances), and Guangdong and Guangxi region group(containing 2 provenances). The correlation analysis result shows that most phenotypic traits of D. latiflorus show significant or extremely significant correlations with longitude, latitude, annual mean temperature, annual mean precipitation, the extreme maximum temperature, and annual mean sunshine hours. In conclusion, the phenotypic diversity of D. latiflorus from different provenances is abundant, and the variation within provenance is the major source of phenotypic variations of D. latiflorus; D. latiflorus from different provenances are not strictly clustered according to geographical locations, and there are fragmentation and discontinuity in phenotypic trait variations of D. latiflorus. The correlations between phenotypic traits of D. latiflorus and environmental factors reveal the reason why the distribution of D. latiflorus is relatively wide from east to west and narrow from north to south.

关键词麻竹; 表型性状; 变异系数; 表型分化; 环境因子
Key wordsDendrocalamus latiflorus Munro; phenotypic trait; coefficient of variation; phenotypic differentiation; environmental factor
作者李东宝a, 吴敏a, 余蓉a, 何天友b, 荣俊冬a, 郑郁善a,b, 陈礼光a
所在单位福建农林大学: a. 林学院(碳中和学院), b. 风景园林与艺术学院, 福建 福州 350002
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基金项目“十四五”国家重点研发计划(2021YFD2200501); 福建省科技创新团队项目(No.2018[49])