2024年6月25日 星期二
新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物地理成分及分布特征
Geographical components and distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang
2022年 第31卷 第4期 页码[20-27]    下载全文[0.9MB]  
摘要

 根据2021年公布的《国家重点保护野生植物名录》统计分析了新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物物种组成,并对这些植物的分布区类型以及水平和垂直分布特征进行了分析。结果表明:新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物共有56种2变种,隶属于20科26属。在科水平上,百合科(Liliaceae)种类最多,有23种1变种;在属水平上,郁金香属(Tulipa Linn.)和贝母属(Fritillaria Linn.)种类较多,分别有14种1变种和8种。从分布区类型看,新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物在属水平有5个分布型和8个亚型,在种水平有6个分布型和14个亚型;温带成分在属和种水平上均占有绝对优势,分别占新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物总属数和总种数的70.8%和94.8%;在种水平上,特有成分有14种2变种,其中8种2变种为新疆特有分布。从新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物的水平分布特征看,天山地区、阿尔泰地区和准噶尔地区(准噶尔西部山地亚地区和准噶尔盆地亚地区)分布的种类较多;其中天山地区分布的种类最多(37种),占新疆国家重点保护野生植物总种数的63.8%,且多数种类为重要经济植物资源。新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物的垂直分布特征明显,在山地森林、山地草甸和山地草原分布的种类较多,尤其集中分布在海拔1 600~2 800 m的山地森林和山地草甸中;贝母属植物主要分布在山地草原和山地草甸中,大部分郁金香属植物分布在草原和低山地带。研究结果显示:新疆分布的国家重点保护野生植物具有明显的温带特征,并具有一定的特有成分;这些植物主要分布在天山、阿尔泰山和准噶尔西部山地的山地森林、山地草甸和山地草原垂直带中以及准噶尔盆地边缘。

Abstract

 The species composition of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang was statistically analyzed according to The List of National Key Protected Wild Plants published in 2021, and the areal-types and the horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics of these plants were analyzed. The results show that there are 56 species and 2 varieties of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang in total, belonging to 26 genera of 20 families. At the family level, Liliaceae has the most species, which has 23 species and 1 variety; at the genus level, Tulipa Linn. and Fritillaria Linn. have many species, which have 14 species and 1 variety and 8 species, respectively. From the areal-types, national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang have 5 arealtypes and 8 subtypes at the genus level, and 6 areal-types and 14 subtypes at the species level; temperate components have absolute predominance at genus and species levels, which account for 70.8% and 94.8% of the total genus number and total species number of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang, respectively; at the species level, there are 14 species and 2 varieties of endemic components,  in which 8 species and 2 varieties are the areal-subtype endemic to Xinjiang. From the horizontal distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang, the species distributed in Tianshan region, Altai region and Junggar region (Western Junggar Mountain subregion and Junggar Basin subregion) are relatively abundant; in which the species distributed in Tianshan region is the most (37 species), accounting for 63.8% of the total species number of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang, and most species are important economic plant resources. The vertical distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang are evident, and the species in mountain forest, mountain meadow, and mountain grassland are relatively abundant, especially concentratedly distribute in mountain forest and mountain meadow at the elevation of 1 600-2 800 m; Fritillaria species mainly distribute in mountain grassland and mountain meadow, while most Tulipa species distribute in grassland and low mountain area. It is suggested that the national key protected wild plants distributed in Xinjiang have evident temperate characteristics, and have some endemic components; these plants mainly distribute in vertical belts of mountain forest, mountain meadow, and mountain grassland of Tianshan Mountains, Altai Mountains and  Western Junggar Mountains, and margin of Junggar Basin. 

关键词新疆; 国家重点保护野生植物; 分布区类型; 水平分布; 垂直分布
Key wordsXinjiang; national key protected wild plant; areal-type; horizontal distribution; vertical distribution
作者王永刚1,叶强2a, 王艺菡2b, 崔大方2a
所在单位1. 新疆农业科学院农作物品种资源研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830091;2. 华南农业大学: a. 林学与风景园林学院, b. 资源环境学院, 广东 广州 510642
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下载次数771
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31370246)