2019年10月17日 星期四
射干的开花特性及繁育系统研究
esearches on flowering characteristics and breeding system of Belamcanda chinensis
2019年 第28卷 第3期 页码[91-99]
摘要

对种植5 a射干〔Belamcanda chinensis (Linn.) Redouté〕的花部特征、开花进程、花粉活力、柱头可授性、繁育系统类型、泌蜜节律及访花昆虫的传粉行为进行了观察和研究。结果表明:射干花被片呈橙至橙红色,散生红褐色斑点;花冠辐射对称,平均直径54.80 mm;花被片6枚,分为2轮,交互排列;雄蕊3枚,将雌蕊围在中央,花药位于柱头下方;蜜腺3枚,位于外轮花被片蜜道的基部,由分泌表皮、泌蜜组织和维管束组成,表面无特殊纹饰。射干的花期为6月至8月,盛花期为6月22日至7月15日,单株花期为10~30 d,单花花期为12 h;花冠在7:00左右初开,在8:00左右盛开,在18:30至19:00完全闭合,在次日呈螺旋状卷曲。在开花过程中,射干的花粉活力和柱头可授性均先升高后降低,分别在9:00及13:00至15:00最强。射干的杂交指数(OCI)为5,花粉/胚珠比(P/O)为1 595.0;3个人工授粉组的坐果率和结籽率总体上升高,且花被片和蜜腺能显著影响传粉昆虫的传粉效率。射干访花昆虫有17种,昆虫日访花总次数呈“双峰型”变化,峰值分别出现在9:00和15:00,花泌蜜量在9:00最大(10.3 μL);射干的传粉昆虫有5种,其中,中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana Fabricius)和意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola)为高效传粉昆虫。研究结果显示:射干花为典型的虫媒花,结籽率受传粉者限制,其花部特征、泌蜜节律和繁育系统均对传粉昆虫有良好的适应性;其繁育系统以异交为主,需要传粉者,并存在部分自交亲和,但未观察到无融合生殖现象。

Abstract

 Floral characteristics, flowering process, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, breeding system type, honey secretion rhythm, and pollination behaviors of flowervisiting insects of Belamcanda chinensis (Linn.) Redouté cultivated for 5 a were observed and studied. The results show that the perianths of B. chinensis are orange to orangered, with scattered redish brown spots; the corolla is radial symmetry, and its average diameter is 54.80 mm; there are 6 perianths, which are divided into 2 whorls and arrange interactively; there are 3 stamens, which enclose the pistil in the center, while the anthers are under the stigma; there are 3 nectaries, which are at the bottom of nectar passage of outer perianth and are composed of secretory epidermis, nectariferous tissue, and vascular bundle, and without special ornamentation on the surface. The florescence of B. chinensis is from June to August, the full flowering period is from June 22nd to July 15th, the florescence of individual plant is 10-30 d, and the florescence of single flower is 12 h; the corolla initially opens at about 7:00, blossoms at about 8:00, completely closes in 18:30-19:00, and spirals on the next day. During the flowering process, pollen viability and stigma receptivity of B. chinensis both first increase and then derease, and are the strongest at 9:00 and 13:00-15:00, respectively. Outcrossing index (OCI) of B. chinensis is 5, and pollen/ovule ratio (P/O) is 1 595.0; the fruit setting rate and seed setting rate of 3 artifically pollination groups increase generally, and perianth and nectary can significantly affect the pollination efficiency of pollination insects. There are 17 species of flowervisiting insects of B. chinensis, and the daily total flowervisiting times of insects show a “bimodal” variation with the peak values at 9:00 and 15:00, respectively, and the nectar volume of flower is the largest (10.3 μL) at 9:00; there are 5 species of pollination insects of B. chinensis, in which, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola are efficient pollination insects. It is suggested that B. chinensis flower is a typical entomophilous flower, its seed setting rate is constrained by pollinators, and its floral characteristics, honey secretion rhythm, and breeding system all have good adaptability to pollination insects; its breeding system is mainly outcrossing, which needs pollinators, and has partial self-compatibility, but the apomixis phenomenon is not observed.

关键词射干; 花部特征; 开花进程; 繁育系统; 访花昆虫; 传粉行为
Key wordsBelamcanda chinensis (Linn.) Redouté; floral characteristics; flowering process; breeding system; flower-visiting insect; pollination behavior
作者许娜, 蔡兴坤, 田梅, 谢国勇, 秦民坚
所在单位中国药科大学中药学院 中药资源系, 江苏 南京 211198
点击量98
基金项目中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(3010020037)