2022年8月20日 星期六
控释肥施用量对兔眼蓝浆果叶片和栽培基质渗出液中养分含量及植株生长的影响
Effects of controlled release fertilizer application amount on nutrient contents in leaf and exudate from culture substrate and plant growth of Vaccinium ashei
2019年 第28卷 第2期 页码[79-87]    下载全文[1.1MB]  
摘要

 以兔眼蓝浆果品种‘灿烂’(Vaccinium ashei ‘Brightwell’)幼树(株龄1.5 a)为实验对象,采用蓝浆果专用栽培基质和巴萨克包膜控释肥培养植株,对不施肥以及施用低量、中量和高量(施肥量分别为0、5、10和15 g·kg-1)控释肥后栽培基质渗出液和植株叶片中全氮、全磷和全钾含量的变化趋势以及植株的生长状况进行了比较研究。结果显示:总体上,各施肥组渗出液和叶片中的全氮、全磷和全钾含量均不同程度高于对照组,且随控释肥施用量的提高,渗出液和叶片中的全氮、全磷和全钾含量均逐渐增加。在施肥后2~21周,渗出液中全氮和全钾含量均呈先缓慢升高后快速降低的“单峰型”变化趋势,而全磷含量的变化趋势则略有不同,其中,高量和中量施肥组渗出液中全磷含量基本呈“双峰型”变化趋势;控释肥中氮、磷和钾的集中释放期分别为施肥后2~10、7~10和5~10周,且均在施肥后10周达到峰值。在施肥后2~22周,叶片中全氮和全钾含量总体呈“双峰型”变化趋势,而叶片中全磷含量总体呈“波动—平稳”的变化趋势;品种‘灿烂’幼树氮、磷和钾积累的活跃期分别集中在施肥后4~16、2~8和6~18周,且均在施肥后8周达到峰值。从生长性状看,各施肥组单株一级至四级枝条数量、株高、基径、最长二级枝条长度以及单株根和地上部的干质量均明显高于对照组,且除单株一级枝条数量外,其他指标均与对照组差异显著(P<0.05);在各生长指标中,单株四级枝条数量、株高、基径、最长二级枝条长度和单株根干质量均以中量施肥组最高。综合分析结果表明:在无土栽培基质中,控释肥养分的释放规律与品种‘灿烂’幼树生长过程中的需肥特性基本同步,但与植株叶片中养分积累规律略有差异。施用控释肥可促进品种‘灿烂’幼树生长,从兼顾植株生长与施肥效益角度看,中量(10 g·kg-1)施用控释肥对品种‘灿烂’幼树生长较为适宜。

Abstract

Taking Vaccinium ashei ‘Brightwell’ sapling (plant age of 1.5 a) as research object, and using special culture substrate for V. ashei and Basacote capsule controlled release fertilizer to cultivate plant, variation tendencies of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium contents in exudate from culture substrate and plant leaf and plant growth status after no fertilization, and applying low amount, medium amount and high amount (fertilizing amount of 0, 5, 10 and 15 g·kg-1, respectively) of controlled release fertilizer were compared and studied. The results show that in general, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium contents in exudate and leaf of each fertilization group are higher than those of the control group at different degrees, and all of the above element contents in exudate and leaf all gradually increase with enhancing of application amount of controlled release fertilizer. In 2-21 weeks after fertilization, total nitrogen and total potassium contents in exudate all show a “unimodal” variation tendency of first slowly increase and then quickly decrease, while variation tendency of total phosphorus content is slightly different, in which, total phosphorus content in exudate of high and medium fertilization groups basically shows a “bimodal” variation tendency; concentrated release periods of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of controlled release fertilizer are 2-10, 7-10 and 5-10 weeks after fertilization, respectively, and all reach the peak value at 10 weeks after fertilization. In 2-22 weeks after fertilization, total nitrogen and total potassium contents in leaf show a “bimodal” variation tendency in general, while total phosphorus content in leaf show a ‘fluctuationstable’ variation tendency in general; active accumulation periods of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ sapling mainly distribute in 4-16, 2-8 and 6-18 weeks after fertilization, respectively, and all reach the peak value at 8 weeks after fertilization. As for the growth traits, numbers of branches from the first grade to the fourth grade per plant, height, basal diameter, length of the longest second grade branch and dry masses of root and aboveground part per plant of each fertilization group are evidently higher than those of the control group, and the indexes are all significantly (P<0.05) different from those of the control group except for number of the first grade branch per plant; among each growth index, number of the fourth grade branch per plant, height, basal diameter, length of the longest second grade branch and dry mass of root per plant are all the highest in medium fertilization group. The comprehensive analysis result shows that in soilless culture substrate, nutrient release law of controlled release fertilizer is basically consistent with the fertilizer demand characteristic of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ sapling during growth progress, but it is slightly different from nutrient accumulation law in plant leaf. Application of controlled release fertilizer can promote growth of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ sapling, from the view of considering plant growth and fertilization benefit, medium application (10 g·kg-1) of controlled release fertilizer is better for growth of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ sapling.

关键词兔眼蓝浆果; 控释肥; 渗出液; 养分释放; 养分积累; 生长指标
Key wordsVaccinium ashei Reade; controlled release fertilizer; exudate; nutrient release; nutrient accumulation; growth index
作者汪春芬, 韦继光, 於虹, 杨奕如, 姜燕琴, 曾其龙
所在单位江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014
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下载次数417
基金项目江苏省重点研发计划(现代农业)项目(BE2017373); 江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(16)1016〕