2018年12月16日 星期日
不同林业废弃物配方基质的理化性质及其对西桦幼苗生长效应的综合评价
Physicochemical property of different forestry waste formula substrates and comprehensive evaluation of their effects on growth of Betula alnoides seedlings
2018年 第27卷 第2期 页码[66-76]
摘要

以林业废弃物木纤维、沤制树皮、椰糠和锯末为基质主料,分别与辅料草炭、黄心土、珍珠岩、蛭石、火烧土和碳化树皮以不同体积比配制16种配方基质,研究了16种配方基质的理化性质及其对西桦(Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don)幼苗的生长和叶片部分生理指标的影响,综合评价各配方基质对西桦幼苗的育苗效果,并筛选出适宜西桦幼苗生长的最佳配方基质。结果表明:16种配方基质的容重、总孔隙度、通气孔隙度、持水孔隙度、电导率和pH值分别为0.21~0.81 g·cm-3、35.87%~63.35%、2.00%~21.74%、24.78%~53.03%、0.04~0.15 mS·cm-1和pH 5.29~pH 7.43,碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾和有机质的含量分别为94.50~652.75 mg·kg-1、3.37~72.67 mg·kg-1、49.50~227.75 mg·kg-1和5.45~43.80 g·kg-1。其中,以林业废弃物为主料的T5〔V(沤制树皮)∶V(锯末)∶V(碳化树皮)=6∶3∶1〕至T16〔V(锯末)∶V(椰糠)∶V(火烧土)∶V(珍珠岩)=3∶3∶2∶2〕配方基质的电导率、持水孔隙度、碱解氮含量、速效钾含量和有机质含量总体上显著高于T1〔V(黄心土)∶V(锯末)∶V(火烧土)=6∶3∶1〕配方基质(对照),容重显著低于对照。不同配方基质中西桦幼苗的根冠比、单株根干质量和叶片叶绿素a含量与叶绿素b含量的比值的差异较小,其他生长指标和生理指标均存在明显差异,其中,T11〔V(木纤维)∶V(草炭)∶V(椰糠)=4∶3∶3〕和T12〔V(木纤维)∶V(草炭)∶V(椰糠)=3∶4∶3〕配方基质中西桦幼苗的单株茎叶干质量、单株根干质量、单株总干质量、株高增长量、地径增长量、高径比、苗木质量指数和叶片总叶绿素含量均高于或显著高于对照,表现出明显的生长优势。综合评价结果显示:T11和T12配方基质中西桦幼苗的综合评价指数较高,分别为0.444和0.440,西桦幼苗实际生长效果也较佳。为了减少草炭使用量,建议将T11配方基质作为西桦幼苗育苗的最佳配方基质。

 

Abstract

Taking forestry wastes of wood fiber, retted bark, coir dust, and sawdust as main materials of substrates, 16 kinds of formula substrates were prepared in different volume ratios with auxiliary materials such as peat, yellow soil, perlite, vermiculite, burned soil, and carbonized bark, physicochemical property of 16 kinds of formula substrates and their effects on growth and some physiological indexes of leaves of Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don seedlings were studied, the seedling raising effect of each formula substrate on B. alnoides seedlings was comprehensively evaluated, and the best formula substrate for the growth of B. alnoides seedlings was screened out. The results show that bulk density, total porosity, aeration porosity, water-holding porosity, electric conductivity, and pH value of 16 kinds of formula substrates are 0.21-0.81 g·cm-3, 35.87%-63.35%, 2.00%-21.74%, 24.78%-53.03%, 0.04-0.15 mS·cm-1, and pH 5.29-pH 7.43, respectively, and contents of available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter are 94.50-652.75 mg·kg-1, 3.37-72.67 mg·kg-1, 49.50-227.75 mg·kg-1, and 5.45-43.80 g·kg-1, respectively. In which, electric conductivity, water-holding porosity, available nitrogen content, available potassium content, and organic matter content in T5 〔V(retted bark)∶V(sawdust)∶V(carbonized bark)=6∶3∶1〕 to T16 〔V(sawdust)∶V(coir dust)〕∶V(burned soil)∶V(perlite)=3∶3∶2∶2〕 formula substrates taking forestry waste as main materials are generally significantly higher than those in T1 〔V(yellow soil)∶V(sawdust)∶V(burned soil)=6∶3∶1〕 formula substrate (the control), and their bulk density is significantly lower than that in the control. There are small differences in root/shoot ratio, dry weight of root per plant, and ratio of chlorophyll a content to chlorophyll b content in leaves of B. alnoides seedlings among different formula substrates, and obvious differences in other growth and physiological indexes. In which, dry weight of shoot per plant, dry weight of root per plant, total dry weight per plant, increment of height, increment of ground diameter, height/ground diameter ratio, seedling quality index, and total chlorophyll content in leaves of B. alnoides seedlings in T11 〔V(wood fiber)∶V(peat)∶V(coir dust)=4∶3∶3〕 and T12 〔V(wood fiber)∶V(peat)∶V(coir dust)=3∶4∶3〕 formula substrates are higher or significantly higher than those in the control, showing obvious growth advantages. The comprehensive evaluation result shows that comprehensive evaluation index of T11 and T12 formula substrates is higher, which is 0.444 and 0.440, respectively, and the actual growth effects of B. alnoides seedlings in these two substrates are also better. In order to reduce the usage amount of peat, T11 formula substrate is recommended as the best for seedling raising of B. alnoidesis seedlings.
 

关键词林业废弃物; 西桦; 配方基质; 理化性质; 主成分分析; 隶属函数值法
Key wordsforestry waste; Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don; formula substrate; physicochemical property; principal component analysis; subordinate function value method
作者艾娟娟1, 厚凌宇1, 邵国栋1, 李智超1, 蒙彩兰2, 卢立华2, 孙启武1
所在单位1. 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 国家林业局林木培育重点实验室, 北京 100091; 2. 中国林业科学研究院热带林业实验中心, 广西 凭祥 532600
点击量280
基金项目林业公益性行业科研专项(201504205)