2022年9月27日 星期二
常熟湿地高等植物的物种组成及区系特征
Species composition and flora characteristics of higher plants in Changshu wetlands
2022年 第31卷 第1期 页码[69-82]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

在实地踏查的基础上,对常熟湿地(包括河流湿地、湖泊湿地和人工湿地)高等植物的物种组成和区系特征进行分析。结果表明:常熟湿地高等植物种类较丰富,共125科341属541种(包括种下分类单位)。扣除栽培植物(含逸生种)后,调查区域内野生植物82科224属359种,包括苔藓植物6科7属8种,蕨类植物7科7属9种,被子植物69科210属342种。常熟湿地野生高等植物中优势科包括禾本科(Poaceae)、菊科(Asteraceae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、蓼科(Polygonaceae)、蝶形花科(Papilionaceae)和唇形科(Lamiaceae)。常熟湿地野生高等植物在科级水平有7种分布区类型和2种变型,世界广布型和泛热带分布型的科占比较大,分别为54.9%和22.0%;在属级水平上有14种分布区类型和8种变型,世界分布型、泛热带分布型和北温带分布型的属占比较大,分别为22.3%、23.2%和15.2%,热带成分与温带成分的属的比值(R/T)为0.96,表明常熟湿地野生高等植物区系既有温带特征,又有热带特征,符合其所处的亚热带地域特征。常熟湿地野生高等植物中,水生植物有37种,其中20种具有良好的净化水质作用;外来入侵植物有14种,其中,喜旱莲子草〔Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.〕、加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis Linn.)和凤眼蓝〔Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms〕危害较大。在常熟湿地植物管理和保护工作中,建议加强对原生湿地环境和本土湿地植物的保护。

Abstract

 On the basis of field investigation, the species composition and flora characteristics of higher plants in Changshu wetlands (containing river wetland, lake wetland, and constructed wetland) were analyzed. The results show that the species of higher plants in Changshu wetlands are abundant, and there are 541 species (including subspecies taxonomic units) belonging to 341 genera of 125 families in total. After excluding the cultivated plants (containing feral species), there are 359 species of wild plants belonging to 224 genera of 82 families in the survey areas, which contain 8 species of bryophytes belonging to 7 genera of 6 families, 9 species of pteridophytes belonging to 7 genera of 7 families, and 342 species of angiosperms belonging to 210 genera of 69 families. The dominant families of wild higher plants in Changshu wetlands contain Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Polygonaceae, Papilionaceae, and Lamiaceae. There are 7 areal types and 2 sub-types at the family level of wild higher plants in Changshu wetlands, and the percentages of families of Cosmopolitan type and Pantropic type are large, with values of 54.9% and 22.0% respectively. There are 14 areal types and 8 subtypes at the genus level, the percentages of genera of Cosmopolitan type, Pantropic type, and N. Temp. type are large, with values of 22.3%, 23.2%, and 15.2% respectively, and the ratio of genus of tropical element to temperate element (R/T) is 0.96, indicating that the flora of wild higher plants in Changshu wetlands has both temperate and tropical characteristics, which conforms to its subtropical regional characteristics. Among the wild higher plants in Changshu wetlands, there are 37 species of aquatic plants, and 20 of them have a good purification effect on water; there are 14 species of alien invasive plants, among which, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Solidago canadensis Linn., and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms are more harmful. It is suggested to strengthen the protection of native wetland environment and native wetland plants in the management and protection of wetland plants in Changshu.

关键词常熟; 湿地; 高等植物; 物种组成; 植物区系
Key wordsChangshu; wetland; higher plant; species composition; flora
作者徐佳1, 戴惠忠2, 陈珏1, 张巧玲1, 何云核3, 朱弘4, 何文月5, 郝建华1
所在单位1. 常熟理工学院生物与食品工程学院, 江苏 常熟 215500; 2. 常熟市林业站, 江苏 常熟 215500;3. 浙江农林大学风景园林与建筑学院, 浙江 杭州 311300; 4. 浙江省林业科学研究院, 浙江 杭州 310023;5. 常熟市建发医药有限公司, 江苏 常熟 215500
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基金项目常熟市农委研究计划(KYH2015035Z)