2024年4月19日 星期五
武夷山国家公园植物群落物种多样性沿海拔梯度的变化分析
Variation analysis on species diversity of plant communities along the elevation gradient in Wuyishan National Park
2023年 第32卷 第1期 页码[1-9]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

为了解武夷山国家公园沿海拔梯度不同类型植物群落的分布格局,在海拔800~2 100 m间设置14个固定样地,进行群落学调查以及群落的物种多样性和相似性分析。结果表明:武夷山国家公园调查样地内共有维管植物89科228属450种,其中,国家一级重点保护野生植物1种;国家二级重点保护野生植物12种;近危(NT)以上等级植物11种,其中极危(CR)和濒危(EN)等级各2种;中国特有物种180种。随着海拔的升高,武夷山国家公园海拔800~2 100 m的植被类型划分为常绿阔叶林(800~1 200 m)、针阔混交林(1 300~1 700 m)、矮曲林(1 800~1 900 m)和中山草甸(2 000~2 100 m)。在海拔800~1 200以及1 300~1 700 m样地,乔木层中甜槠〔Castanopsis eyrei (Champ. ex Benth.) Tutch.〕和黄山松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)分别具有明显优势。武夷山国家公园植物群落物种多样性的垂直分布存在一定的规律,乔木层和灌木层的Shannon-Wiener指数和Margalef丰富度指数整体随海拔的升高而降低,垂直地带性特征明显。不同海拔区间植物群落的物种相似性差异较大,海拔800~1 200 m常绿阔叶林群落的Jaccard相似性指数总体较高,海拔1 800~1 900 m矮曲林群落的Jaccard相似性指数最低。综上所述,武夷山国家公园植物物种丰富,珍稀濒危植物种类较多,植被垂直带谱较明显,利于森林多样性监测以及山地森林群落稳定性维持。

Abstract

To explore the distribution pattern of different types of plant communities along the elevation gradient in Wuyishan National Park, 14 permanent plots were set up at the elevation of 800-2 100 m, and community investigation and analyses on species diversity and similarity of community were conducted. The results show that there are 450 species of vascular plants belonging to 228 genera of 89 families in the survey plots of Wuyishan National Park, in which, there are 1 species of national first-class key protected wild plants and 12 species of national second-class key protected wild plants; there are 11 species of near threatened (NT) or higher grades, including 2 critically endangered (CR) species and 2 endangered (EN)  species; 180 species are endemic to China. With the increase of elevation, the vegetational type at the elevation of 800-2 100 m in Wuyishan National Park can be divided into evergreen broad-leaved forest (800-1 200 m), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (1 300-1 700 m), elfin woodland (1 800-1 900 m), and middle mountain meadow (2 000-2 100 m). Castanopsis eyrei (Champ. ex Benth.) Tutch. and Pinus taiwanensis Hayata in the arbor layer have obvious advantages in the plots at the elevation of 800-1 200 and 1 300-1 700 m respectively. There is a certain regularity in vertical distribution of species diversity of plant communities in Wuyishan National Park, and the Shannon-Wiener index and Margalef richness index of arbor layer and shrub layer decrease with the increase of elevation in general, which shows evident vertical zonal characteristics. There are relatively large differences in species similarity of plant communities among different elevation intervals, and the Jaccard similarity indexes of evergreen broadleaved forest communities at the elevation of 800-1 200 m are generally high, while that of elfin woodland communities at the elevation of 1 800-1 900 m is the lowest. In conclusion, Wuyishan National Park has abundant plant species, many rare and endangered plant species, and a relatively evident vertical spectrum of vegetation, which are beneficial to the monitoring of forest diversity and the maintainance of stability of mountain forest community.

关键词武夷山国家公园; 海拔梯度; 植物群落; 物种多样性
Key wordsWuyishan National Park; elevation gradient; plant community; species diversity
作者陈水飞1, 徐辉2, 林文俊3, 郑笑1, 徐鲜钧4, 刘文芳5, 丁晖1, 陈世品3
所在单位1. 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所 国家环境保护武夷山生态环境科学观测研究站 国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210042; 2. 福建省微生物研究所, 福建 福州350007; 3. 福建农林大学, 福建 福州 350002; 4. 福建省武夷山生物研究所, 福建 武夷山 354300;5. 武夷山国家公园科研监测中心, 福建 武夷山 354399
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基金项目中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(GYZX200203); 生态环境部事业费项目(2110404); 福建省林业科研项目(闽林科便函〔2019〕16号)